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Lyssa (detail), Athenian red-figure krater C5th B.C., Museum of well Arts Boston

LYSSA was the goddess or personified heart (daimona) of foolish rage, fury, crazed frenzy and, in animals, rabies. The Athenians spelt her surname Lytta.

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Lyssa was a figure of Athenian tragedy. In Aeschylus she appears as an certified dealer of Dionysos sent to drive the Minyades mad, and in Euripides she is sent out by Hera come inflict Herakles with madness. Greek vase-painting depicts she standing next to Aktaion (Actaeon) together he is take it apart by his maddened hounds. In this step she appears as a ladies dressed in a short skirt and crowned through a dog"s-head cap representing the insanity of rabies.

Lyssa to be closley related to the Maniai (Maniae), the goddesses the mania and also madness. Her roman inn equivalents to be Ira, Furor and Rabies. Sometimes she to be multiplied right into a hold of Irae and Furores.

FAMILY of LYSSA

PARENTS

<1> NYX & the blood that OURANOS (Euripides Heracles 844)<2> AETHER & GAIA (Hyginus Preface)

CLASSICAL literature QUOTES

LYSSA PERSONIFICATION OF mad RAGE

Aeschylus, Fragment 85 Xantriae (from Photius, Lexicon 326. 22) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :"From the feet increase the crown of the head steals the spasm, the stab of Lyssa (Frenzy), aye, the scorpion"s sting."

Euripides, Heracles 815 ff (trans. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :" Chorus : Ha! view there, mine old comrades! is the very same wild panic fallen on united state all; what phantom is this I see hovering end the house? Fly, fly, bestir your tardy steps! begone! away! O savior prince, avert calamity indigenous me!Iris : Courage, old men! she, who you see, is Lyssa (Madness), daughter of Nyx (Night), and also I am Iris, the handmaid the the gods. We have actually not concerned do her city any kind of hurt, yet our war is against the home of one guy only, against him who they speak to the son of Zeus and Alkmena (Alcmena). For till he had actually finished every his grievous labors, Destiny was preserving him, nor would father Zeus ever before suffer me or Hera to injury him. But now the he has completed the labors the Eurystheus, Hera desire to brand him with the guilt of shedding kindred blood by slaying his own children, and I great it also. Come then, unwed maid, boy of black color Nyx (Night), harden your heart relentlessly, send forth frenzy top top this man, confound his mind even to the slaying the his children, journey him, goad him wildly top top his foolish career, shake out the sails the death, that when he has actually conveyed over Akheron"s (Acheron"s) ferry the fair group of kids by his own murderous hand, that may find out to know how fiercely versus him the wrath of Hera burns and may additionally experience mine; otherwise, if he need to escape punishment, the god will end up being as nothing, if man"s power will certainly grow.Lyssa : of noble parental was ns born, the daughter that Nyx (Night), sprung from the blood the Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven); and these prerogatives ns hold, not to usage them in anger against friends, nor carry out I have any type of joy in visiting the residences of men; and I great to counsel Hera, before I check out her err, and you too, if you will hearken to my words. This man, against whose house you are sending out me, has made self a surname alike in heaven and also earth; for, after taming pathless wilds and raging sea, he by his solitary might elevated up again the honors that the gods once sinking before man"s impiety; . . ((lacuna)) wherefore ns counsel you, carry out not great him dire mishaps.Iris : Spare united state your advice top top Hera"s and my schemes.Lyssa : I look for to rotate your steps into the ideal path rather of into this one of evil.Iris : it was no to practice self-control that the mam of Zeus sent out you here.Lyssa :I speak to Helios the sun-god to witness that here I am acting against my will; yet if certainly I should at as soon as serve you and Hera and also follow friend in full cry together hounds monitor the huntsman, climate I will certainly go; neither s with that is fiercely groaning waves, no one the earthquake, nor the thunderbolt with blast of agony shall be prefer the headlong rush I will make into the chest of Herakles; through his roof will I burst my way and swoop top top his house, after first slaying his children; nor shall their murderer understand that the is killing the kids he begot, till the is exit from my madness. Behold him! watch how even now the is wildly tossing his head in ~ the outset, and also rolling his eyes fiercely from side to side without a word; nor have the right to he regulate his panting breath, favor a fearful bull in act to charge; he bellows, phone call on the Keres of Tartaros. Soon will i rouse you to yet wilder dancing and also pipe a note of terror in her ear. Soar away, O Iris, come Olympos on your honored course; while i unseen will certainly steal right into the halls the Herakles.Choru s: Alas alas! lament; the child of Zeus, flower of her city, is being reduced down. Woe come you, Hellas! that will actors from you your benefactor, and destroy him as he dances in the shrill frenzy the Lyssa (Madness). She is an installed on she chariot, the queen of sorrow and sighing, and is goading on she steeds, as if for outrage, the Gorgon child of Nyx, with a hundred hissing serpent-heads, Lyssa (Madness) that the flashing eyes. Soon has actually the god adjusted his an excellent fortune; soon will his youngsters breathe their last, slain by a father"s hand."

photo N17.1 (below): "Lyssa runs forward urging ~ above the hounds in their maddened strike on Aktaion. She attract a chitoniskos; over it, a cloak with lengthy sleeves; over the a pelt, girt; high laced boots. Above the crown of she head, together if cultivation from it, is the head of a small hound, with alert look and also ears pricked up. She attract a sleeved coat, the Persian kandys. The is worn through Amazons as component of their asian costume." Perseus Digital Library, Vase Catalogue (accessed October 2000)

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Lyssa, Actaeon and also Artemis, Athenian red-figure krater C5th B.C., Museum of fine Arts Boston

IRA & THE IRAE roman PERSONIFICATIONS of ANGER

Ira (Anger) to be the Roman equivalent of Lyssa. She was regularly pluralized by the Latin right into a hold of Irae (Angers).

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Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :"From Aether and also Terra (Earth) : Dolor (Grief), Dolus (Deceit), Ira (Wrath) , Luctus (Lamentation), Mendacium (Falsehood), Jusiurandum (Oath), Vltio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Intemperance), Altercatio (Altercation), Obliuio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Pride), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Combat)."

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2. 200 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :" with the terror-stricken waiting again and also again she renders a weird cry ring . . . Straightway Pavor (Fear) and also insensate Discordia (Strife) from her Getic lair, dark-browed Ira (Anger) v pale cheeks, Dolus (Treachery) , Rabies (Frenzy) and towering above the rest Letus (Death) , she cruel hand bared, come speeding up up at the first sound the the Martian consort"s pealing voice that gave the signal."

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. 136 ff : "Ira (Anger) and also a sire who tears awaited urged ~ above the axe-wielding suppliers ."

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. 145 ff : "For ere castle dragged unknown iron native its stony bed and listed swords, Odia (Hatred) roamed feeble due to the fact that unarmed, Ira (Anger) was resourceless and also Erinys (Vengeance) however slow."

Statius, Thebaid 2. 286 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :" no Pasithea, eldest the the gracious sister , nor Decor (Charm) no one the Idalian youth go mould it , yet Luctus (Grief) , and all the Irae (Passions), and also Dolor (Anguish) and Discordia (Discord) , with all the craft of her appropriate hand."

Statius, Thebaid 3. 424 ff : "Amid the night-wandering shades the god of fight from on high made come resound with the thunder of eight the Nemean fields and also Arcadia from finish to end, and also the elevation of Taenarum and also Therapnae . . . Filled excited hearts through passion for himself . Furor (Fury) and also Ira (Wrath) do trim his crest, and Pavor (Panic), his own squire, handle his horses" reins."

Statius, Thebaid 7. 64 ff : "Fit sentinels organize watch over there : native the external gate wild inspiration (Passion) leaps, and also blind Nefas (Mishief) and also Irae (Angers) flushing red and pallid Metus (Fear), and Insidia (Treachery) lurks with covert sword, and Discordia (Discord) stop a two-edged blade. Minis (Threatenings) innumerable make clamour in the court, sullen Virtus (Valour) stand in the midst, and also Furor (Rage) exultant and armed Mors (Death) with blood-stained visage space seated there; no blood however that of battles is on the altars, no fire but snatched from burning cities."

Statius, Thebaid 9. 832 ff : "The mr of war sprang down into the fight: together he sped v the courses of air Ira (Anger) alone was his companion: the various other Furores (Madnesses) were liven in the sweat that war."

FUROR & THE FURORES roman PERSONIFICATIONS of RAGE

Lyssa was more than likely the very same as the Latin Furor (Rage). She was sometimes pluralized into a team of Furores.

Seneca, Hercules Furens 90 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :" ‘Dost think that now thou aside from that escaped the Styx and also the devilish ghosts? here will I present thee infernal shapes. One in deep darkness buried, much down listed below the place of banishment the guilty souls, will certainly I speak to up-- the goddess Discordia (Discord) , whom a large cavern, barred by a mountain, guards; ns will lug her forth, and drag the end from the deepest kingdom of Dis everything thou besides left; hateful Scelus (Crime) candlestick come and also reckless Impietas (Impiety) , stained v kindred blood, Error (Error) , and also Furor (Mad-Rage) , equipped ever versus itself--this, this be the minister of mine smarting wrath!’"

Seneca, Oedipus 582 : " suddenly the earth yawned and also opened broad with gulf immeasurable. Myself, I saw the numb pools amidst the shadows; myself, the wan gods and also night in very truth. My frozen blood stood still and clogged mine veins. Soon leaped a savage cohort . . . Then grim Erinys (Vengeance) shrieked, and also blind Furor (Fury) and Horror (Horror) , and all the forms which spawn and lurk middle the eternal shades : Luctus (Grief) , tearing her hair; Morbus (Disease) , scarce stop up she wearied head; Senectus (Age) , burdened v herself; unavoidable Metus (Fear) , and also greedy Pestis (Pestilence) , the Ogygian people"s curse. Ours spirits died within us. Even she that knew the rites and also the art of her aged sire stand amazed. But he, undaunted and also bold indigenous his lost sight, summons the bloodless throng of cruel Dis ."

Statius, Thebaid 3. 424 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :"The god of battle indigenous on high made come resound v the thunder of eight the Nemean fields and Arcadia from finish to finish . . . Filled excited hearts through passion for himself . Furor (Fury) and Ira (Wrath) do trim his crest, and Pavor (Panic), his very own squire, handle his horses" reins."

Statius, Thebaid 7. 64 ff : "Fit sentinels hold watch over there : from the outer gate wild catalyst (Passion) leaps, and blind Nefas (Mishief) and also Irae (Angers) flushing red and pallid Metus (Fear), and Insidia (Treachery) lurks with surprise sword, and Discordia (Discord) stop a two-edged blade. Minis (Threatenings) innumerable make clamour in the court, sullen Virtus (Valour) stand in the midst, and also Furor (Rage) exultant and also armed Mors (Death) v blood-stained visage space seated there; no blood yet that of wars is on the altars, no fire however snatched from burning cities."

Statius, Thebaid 10. 556 ff : "Dreadful is the sight within , scarce Mars himself would rejoice come behold it; Luctus (Grief) and also Furor (Fury) and also Pavor (Panic), and also Fuga (Rout) enwrapped in blinding gloom rend through many-voiced discord the frenzied, horror-stricken town."

Statius, Thebaid 9. 832 ff : "The lord of war sprang down into the hit : together he sped v the paths of wait Ira (Anger) alone to be his companion: the various other Furores (Rages) were busy in the sweat the war."

Statius, Thebaid 5. 65 ff : " everywhere reigned bitter Odia (Hatred) and also Furor (Rage) and Discordia (Discord) sundering the partners of the bed."

Statius, Thebaid 4. 661 ff : "No slow-moving retinue is his : Ira (Anger) and also Furor (Rage) room there, and Metus (Fear) and Virtus (Virtue), and also Ardor (Ardour) never sober, and steps that stagger, an army most favor to its prince."

RABIES roman PERSONIFICATION the RAGE

Lyssa additionally appears in Latin in the form of Rabies (Frenzied-Rage), a daimona of both battle-fury and the condition of rabies.

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2. 200 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epos C1st A.D.) :" with the terror-stricken waiting again and also again she provides a strange cry ring . . . Straightway Pavor (Fear) and also insensate Discordia (Strife) from her Getic lair, dark-browed Ira (Anger) v pale cheeks, Dolus (Treachery), Rabies (Frenzied Rage) and towering over the remainder Letum (Death), she cruel hand bared, come quickening up in ~ the an initial sound that the Martian consort"s pealing voice that offered the signal."