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You are watching: Which type of macromolecule stores genetic information

Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002.

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Having genes in typical accounts for the resemblance of a mother and herdaughters. Genes should be expressed to exert one effect, and also proteins manage suchexpression. One together regulatory protein, a zinc-finger protein (zinc ion isblue, protein is red), (more...)

DNA and RNA space long linear polymers, referred to as nucleic acids, that lug information ina kind that deserve to be passed from one generation to the next. This macromoleculesconsist the a big number of linked nucleotides, each written of a sugar, aphosphate, and a base. Sugars attached by phosphates type a typical backbone, whereasthe bases vary among four kinds. Hereditary information is stored in thesequence of bases along a nucleic acid chain. The bases have anadditional unique property: they type specific pairs with one one more that arestabilized by hydrogen bonds. The basic pairing results in the formation of a doublehelix, a helical structure consisting of 2 strands. These base pairsprovide a system for copy the genetic information in an currently nucleicacid chain to kind a new chain. Back RNA probably functioned as thegenetic material very early in evolution history, the genes of all modern-day cellsand many viruses are made of DNA. DNA is replicated by the activity of DNA polymeraseenzymes. This exquisitely details enzymes copy assignment from nucleic acidtemplates v an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million nucleotides.

Genes clues the kinds of proteins that room made through cells, yet DNA is no the directtemplate because that protein synthesis. Rather, the templates because that protein synthesis are RNA(ribonucleic acid) molecules. In particular, a course of RNA molecules calledmessenger RNA (mRNA) are the information-carrying intermediatesin protein synthesis. Various other RNA molecules, such as transport RNA(tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), are part of theprotein-synthesizing machinery. All creates of to move RNA room synthesized through RNApolymerases the take instructions from DNA templates. This process oftranscription is complied with by translation, thesynthesis of proteins according to instructions given by mRNA templates. Thus, theflow of genetic information, or gene expression, in regular cellsis:


This flow of information is dependent on the hereditary code, which specifies the relationbetween the succession of bases in DNA (or the mRNA transcript) and the succession ofamino acids in a protein. The code is practically the exact same in all organisms: a sequenceof three bases, called a codon, mentions an amino acid. Codons inmRNA are review sequentially by tRNA molecules, which serve as adaptors in proteinsynthesis. Protein synthetic takes ar on ribosomes, i m sorry are complex assembliesof rRNAs and much more than 50 type of proteins.

The last layout to be thought about is the interrupted character of most eukaryoticgenes, which space mosaics of nucleic mountain sequences referred to as intronsand exons. Both space transcribed, yet introns are reduced out that newlysynthesized RNA molecules, leave mature RNA molecule with constant exons. Theexistence that introns and exons has vital implications because that the advancement ofproteins.

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5.1. A nucleic Acid is composed of four Kinds that Bases connected to a Sugar-Phosphate Backbone5.2. A Pair the Nucleic mountain Chains with Complementary order Can kind a Double-Helical Structure5.3. DNA Is Replicated by Polymerases that Take Instructions native Templates5.4. Gene Expression Is the transformation of DNA information Into functional Molecules5.5. Amino Acids are Encoded by teams of three Bases beginning from a addressed Point5.6. Most Eukaryotic Genes room Mosaics that Introns and also ExonsSummaryProblemsSelected Readings

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