Constitution that the joined StatesPreambleArticle IArticle IIArticle IIIArticle IVArticle VArticle VIArticle VIIAMENDMENTS
IntroductionWritten in 1787, ratified in 1788, and also in operation because 1789, the United states Constitution is the world’s longest making it through written charter that government. Its first three native – “We The People” – affirm that the federal government of the United states exists to serve its citizens. The prominence of the civilization through their chosen representatives is recognized in article I, which creates a conference consisting the a dearteassociazione.org and also a residence of Representatives. The positioning of conference at the beginning of the constitution affirms its standing as the “First Branch” that the commonwealth government.The constitution assigned come Congress obligation for arranging the executive and also judicial branches, raising revenue, advertising war, and also making every laws crucial for executing these powers. The president is permitted to veto specific legislative acts, however Congress has the government to override presidential vetoes by two-thirds majorities of both houses. The Constitution additionally provides that the dearteassociazione.org advise and consent on an essential executive and also judicial appointments and also on the approval because that ratification of treaties.For over two centuries the Constitution has actually remained in force due to the fact that its framers efficiently separated and balanced governmental strength to safeguard the understand of majority rule and also minority rights, the liberty and also equality, and also of the federal and also state governments. More a concise declare of national principles than a detailed plan of government operation, the constitution has advanced to fulfill the changing needs that a modern-day society profoundly different from the eighteenth-century civilization in i m sorry its creators lived. To date, the Constitution has actually been amended 27 times, most recently in 1992. The first ten amendments constitute the invoice of Rights. Annotated ConstitutionsThe Constitution that the United claims of America: evaluation and Interpretation (popularly recognized as the constitution Annotated) contains legal evaluation and translate of the United says Constitution, based mostly on supreme Court instance law.
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The structure of the United says of America, S.PUB.103-21 (1994) (PDF), all set by the Office of the Secretary of the dearteassociazione.org v the assistance of Johnny H. Killian of the Library of conference in 1994, provided the initial text of each clause of the Constitution through an accompanying explanation that its meaning and exactly how that meaning changed end time.Italicized text shows words and passages the the Constitution that were adjusted or affected by amendments.
| Preamble |
We the civilization of the united States, in bespeak to form a an ext perfect Union, create Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, administer for the typical defense, promote the basic Welfare, and secure the blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, perform ordain and also establish this Constitution for the United states of America.
Article ISection 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Section 5Section 6Section 7Section 8Section 9Section 10
Section 1All legislative strength herein granted shall be vested in a conference of the unified States, i m sorry shall covers a dearteassociazione.org and also House of Representatives.
The residence of representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every 2nd Year by the civilization of the number of States, and also the Electors in every State shall have actually the Qualifications requisite because that Electors the the most countless Branch that the State Legislature.
No person shall it is in a Representative that shall not have attained to the age of twenty 5 Years, and been 7 Years a citizens of the united States, and also who candlestick not, once elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which the shall it is in chosen.
Representatives and also direct count shall be apportioned amongst the several claims which might be contained within this Union, according to their particular Numbers, i beg your pardon shall be determined by adding to the entirety Number of free Persons, including those tied to business for a term of Years, and also excluding Indians not taxed, 3 fifths that all other Persons. The really Enumeration shall be made within three Years after ~ the very first Meeting that the congress of the unified States, and within every succeeding Term of ten Years, in together Manner as they candlestick by legislation direct. The variety of Representatives shall no exceed one for every thirty Thousand, yet each State shall have actually at the very least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of brand-new Hampshire candlestick be licensed has been granted to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, brand-new Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, north Carolina five, southern Carolina five, and also Georgia three.
When vacancies occur in the representation from any kind of State, the Executive authority thereof shall concern Writs of choice to fill such Vacancies.
The house of to represent shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and also shall have actually the single Power that Impeachment.
The dearteassociazione.org of the United states shall be created of 2 Senators from every State, liked by the legislative branch thereof, for six Years; and also each councilor shall have actually one Vote.Immediately after castle shall it is in assembled in an effect of the very first Election, lock shall be divided as equally as might be into three Classes. The seat of the Senators the the very first Class shall it is in vacated at the Expiration the the 2nd Year, that the 2nd Class at the Expiration that the 4th Year, and also of the third Class at the Expiration that the sixth Year, so that one third may be liked every second Year; and also if Vacancies occur by Resignation, or otherwise, throughout the Recess the the legislative branch of any kind of State, the executive, management thereof may make momentary Appointments until the following Meeting of the Legislature, i m sorry shall then fill such Vacancies.
No human shall be a Senator who shall not have attained come the period of thirty Years, and also been ripe Years a citizens of the unified States, and who chandelier not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of the State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice president of the United says shall be president of the dearteassociazione.org, however shall have no Vote, uneven they be equally divided.
The dearteassociazione.org shall chuse their various other Officers, and likewise a President agree tempore, in the lack of the evil President, or once he shall practice the Office of president of the joined States.
The dearteassociazione.org shall have the single Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, lock shall it is in on Oath or Affirmation. As soon as the president of the United says is tried, the chief Justice chandelier preside: and no human being shall be convicted without the Concurrence of 2 thirds of the Members present.Judgment in situations of Impeachment shall not prolong further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office that honor, trust or profit under the unified States: yet the Party convicted shall however be liable and also subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and also Punishment, follow to Law.
Section 4The Times, Places and Manner of stop Elections for Senators and also Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the legislative thereof; yet the Congress may at any time by legislation make or alter such Regulations, except regarding the places of chusing Senators.The congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and also such meeting shall it is in on the an initial Monday in December, uneven they shall by law appoint a different Day.
Each home shall be the judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications that its own Members, and also a bulk of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; yet a smaller sized Number may adjourn indigenous day come day, and also may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in together Manner, and also under together Penalties as each house may provide.Each house may determine the rule of that Proceedings, punishment its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, through the Concurrence of 2 thirds, expel a Member.
Each home shall keep a newspaper of that is Proceedings, and from time to time i announced the same, excepting such components as might in their Judgment call for Secrecy; and also the Yeas and Nays the the Members that either house on any type of question shall, in ~ the Desire of one 5th of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, throughout the session of Congress, shall, there is no the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other ar than that in i beg your pardon the two homes shall it is in sitting.
The Senators and also Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to it is in ascertained through Law, and paid the end of the Treasury of the united States. Castle shall in all Cases, other than Treason, Felony and also Breach that the Peace, be privileged indigenous Arrest throughout their Attendance at the conference of their respective Houses, and in walk to and also returning from the same; and also for any type of Speech or dispute in either House, lock shall no be wondered about in any kind of other Place.
No city council or Representative shall, throughout the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any type of civil Office under the authority of the united States, i m sorry shall have actually been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and also no person holding any kind of Office under the united States, shall be a Member of either House throughout his continue in Office.
All bills for elevating Revenue shall originate in the house of Representatives; however the dearteassociazione.org may propose or concur through Amendments as on various other Bills.
Every bill which shall have actually passed the residence of Representatives and the dearteassociazione.org, shall, before it end up being a Law, be presented to the chairman of the joined States: If he provide he shall authorize it, however if no he chandelier return it, with his Objections come that residence in which the shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at big on your Journal, and also proceed come reconsider it. If after together Reconsideration two thirds that that home shall agree to pass the Bill, that shall be sent, along with the Objections, to the various other House, through which it shall similarly be reconsidered, and if approved by 2 thirds of the House, that shall become a Law. However in all such instances the Votes that both houses shall be established by Yeas and also Nays, and also the surname of the persons voting for and against the invoice shall be entered on the newspaper of each home respectively. If any type of Bill shall no be returned by the President in ~ ten job (Sundays excepted) after that shall have actually been gift to him, the same shall be a Law, in favor Manner as if he had signed it, uneven the conference by your Adjournment prevent its Return, in which case it shall no be a Law.Every Order, Resolution, or poll to i beg your pardon the Concurrence the the dearteassociazione.org and also House that Representatives may be essential (except top top a concern of Adjournment) chandelier be presented to the chairman of the unified States; and also before the very same shall take it Effect, shall be approved by him, or gift disapproved through him, shall be repassed by 2 thirds that the dearteassociazione.org and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and also Limitations prescribed in the case of a Bill.
The congress shall have actually Power to lay and also collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the debts and administer for the common Defence and also general Welfare of the joined States; but all Duties, Imposts and also Excises shall be uniform transparent the joined States;
To borrow Money ~ above the credit transaction of the joined States;
To regulate business with foreign Nations, and among the numerous States, and with the Indian Tribes;
To establish an uniform dominance of Naturalization, and uniform regulations on the topic of Bankruptcies throughout the united States;
To coin Money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the typical of Weights and also Measures;To administer for the penalty of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin that the unified States;
To establish short article Offices and also post Roads;
To encourage the progress of Science and useful Arts, through securing for restricted Times come Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the can be fried Court;
To define and punish Piracies and also Felonies committed on the high Seas, and also Offences versus the law of Nations;
To explain War, approve Letters that Marque and also Reprisal, and also make rules concerning catches on Land and also Water;To raise and also support Armies, but no Appropriation the Money to that usage shall be because that a much longer Term than 2 Years;To carry out and preserve a Navy;To make Rules because that the Government and also Regulation of the land and also naval Forces;
To carry out for calling soon the Militia come execute the legislations of the Union, suppress Insurrections and also repel Invasions;To provide for organizing, arming, and also disciplining, the Militia, and also for administer such part of them as may be to work in the service of the joined States, reserving come the states respectively, the appointment of the Officers, and also the government of maintain the Militia according to the technique prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive law in all instances whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten mile square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and also the accept of Congress, become the chair of the government of the joined States, and also to exercise favor Authority over all locations purchased through the Consent of the legislative of the State in i m sorry the same shall be, because that the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And
To do all regulations which shall be necessary and also proper because that carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this constitution in the federal government of the joined States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
The migrate or income of such Persons as any kind of of the States currently existing chandelier think suitable to admit, shall no be prohibition by the Congress before the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a taxes or duty might be imposed on such Importation, no exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
The Privilege the the Writ the Habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless as soon as in cases of Rebellion or intrusion the publicly Safety may require it.
No invoice of Attainder or ex write-up facto legislation shall be passed.
No Capitation, or other direct, taxation shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein prior to directed to be taken.No taxes or Duty shall be laid on short articles exported from any State.No preference shall be offered by any Regulation of commerce or Revenue come the port of one State end those that another; nor shall ship bound to, or from, one State, it is in obliged come enter, clear, or salary Duties in another.
No Money candlestick be drawn from the Treasury, yet in an effect of Appropriations made by Law; and also a consistent Statement and also Account the the Receipts and also Expenditures of all public Money candlestick be released from time to time.
No location of the aristocracy shall be granted by the united States: and no human holding any type of Office of profit or to trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any type of present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any type of kind whatever, from any type of King, Prince, or foreign State.
Section 10No State shall enter into any type of Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; approve Letters that Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit receipt of Credit; make any Thing however gold and also silver Coin a soft in Payment that Debts; pass any type of Bill the Attainder, ex short article facto Law, or regulation impairing the obligation of Contracts, or grant any kind of Title that Nobility.No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any type of Imposts or Duties top top Imports or Exports, except what might be absolutely vital for executing its investigate Laws: and also the net create of every Duties and also Imposts, to adjust by any State ~ above Imports or Exports, chandelier be because that the use of the Treasury the the unified States; and all such laws shall be subject to the Revision and also Control that the Congress.No State shall, without the Consent the Congress, lay any type of Duty that Tonnage, save Troops, or ships of War with time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with one more State, or v a international Power, or communicate in War, unless actually invaded, or in such brewing Danger as will certainly not recognize of delay.
Article IISection 1Section 2Section 3Section 4
The executive power shall it is in vested in a president of the United claims of America. He shall organize his Office during the term of four Years, and, along with the vice President, preferred for the same Term, it is in elected, together follows:
Each State shall appoint, in together Manner together the legislative thereof might direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole variety of Senators and Representatives come which the State might be entitled in the Congress: however no councilor or Representative, or human being holding an Office of trust or benefit under the joined States, shall it is in appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall fulfill in their particular States, and also vote by Ballot for 2 Persons, of whom one at the very least shall no be one Inhabitant the the very same State through themselves. And also they shall make a perform of every the Persons vote for, and also of the number of Votes because that each; which perform they shall sign and also certify, and also transmit sealed to the chair of the federal government of the unified States, command to the chairman of the dearteassociazione.org. The chairman of the dearteassociazione.org shall, in the presence of the dearteassociazione.org and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall climate be counted. The Person having the greatest number of Votes shall be the President, if together Number be a bulk of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if there be much more than one who have actually such Majority, and also have one equal variety of Votes, then the home of to represent shall automatically chuse through Ballot among them because that President; and if no Person have actually a Majority, climate from the 5 highest top top the perform the said residence shall in like Manner chuse the President. However in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken through States, the to represent from every State having one Vote; a quorum because that this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from 2 thirds that the States, and a majority of every the says shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, ~ the choice of the President, the Person having actually the greatest number of Votes the the Electors shall be the evil President. But if there need to remain 2 or much more who have equal Votes, the dearteassociazione.org shall chuse native them by Ballot the Vice-President.
The congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the day on which they shall provide their Votes; which job shall be the exact same throughout the joined States.
No Person other than a organic born Citizen, or a citizen of the unified States, at the time of the fostering of this Constitution, shall be eligible come the Office of President; neither shall any person it is in eligible to the Office who shall not have actually attained come the age of thirty 5 Years, and also been fourteen years a Resident within the joined States.
In case of the remove of the chairman from Office, or the his Death, Resignation, or i can not qualify to discharge the Powers and also Duties the the claimed Office, the same shall devolve top top the vice President, and the Congress might by Law administer for the instance of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both the the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act together President, and such Officer shall plot accordingly, until the impairment be removed, or a chairman shall it is in elected.
The president shall, at proclaimed Times, obtain for his Services, a Compensation, i beg your pardon shall neither be encreased nor lessened during the duration for which the shall have been elected, and he shall not obtain within that duration any other Emolument from the joined States, or any kind of of them.
Before he enter on the Execution that his Office, that shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—"I execute solemnly swear (or affirm) the I will faithfully execute the Office of president of the united States, and will to the finest of my Ability, preserve, protect and also defend the constitution of the unified States."
The president shall be command in chief of the Army and also Navy that the united States, and also of the Militia the the numerous States, when referred to as into the actual business of the joined States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, that the major Officer in every of the executive, management Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties that their particular Offices, and also he shall have actually Power to provide Reprieves and also Pardons for Offences against the unified States, except in cases of Impeachment.
He shall have actually Power, by and also with the Advice and Consent that the dearteassociazione.org, to make Treaties, listed two thirds that the Senators current concur; and he chandelier nominate, and also by and also with the Advice and Consent the the dearteassociazione.org, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and also all other officers of the united States, who Appointments space not herein otherwise noted for, and also which shall be developed by Law: yet the Congress may by regulation vest the appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in the court of Law, or in the top of Departments.
The chairman shall have Power to to fill up every Vacancies that might happen during the Recess the the dearteassociazione.org, by providing Commissions which shall expire in ~ the end of their next Session.
He shall from time come time offer to the Congress details of the State that the Union, and recommend come their consideration such actions as he shall referee necessary and expedient; the may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and also in case of Disagreement between them, through Respect to the moment of Adjournment, he might adjourn lock to together Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other windy Ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithful executed, and shall Commission every the officers of the joined States.
The President, evil President and all Civil officers of the unified States, chandelier be removed from Office top top Impeachment for, and also Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and also Misdemeanors.
Article IIISection 1Section 2Section 3
The judicial power of the unified States, shall be vested in one can be fried Court, and in such inferior Courts together the Congress might from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and also inferior Courts, shall organize their offices during great Behaviour, and shall, at declared Times, obtain for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be lessened during your Continuance in Office.
The judicial strength shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, occurring under this Constitution, the laws of the unified States, and also Treaties made, or i beg your pardon shall be made, under your Authority;—to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;—to all cases of admiralty and also maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United states shall it is in a Party;—to Controversies between two or much more States;—between a State and Citizens of one more State;—between citizen of various States;—between citizen of the exact same State claiming soil under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizen thereof, and foreign States, citizen or Subjects.
In all situations affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and also Consuls, and also those in which a State shall be Party, the can be fried Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases prior to mentioned, the supreme Court shall have actually appellate Jurisdiction, both regarding Law and Fact, v such Exceptions, and under together Regulations together the congress shall make.
The psychological of every Crimes, except in situations of Impeachment, shall it is in by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State wherein the said Crimes shall have been committed; yet when not committed within any kind of State, the Trial candlestick be in ~ such place or areas as the Congress might by Law have directed.
Treason against the unified States, candlestick consist just in levying War versus them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them assist and Comfort. No person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of 2 Witnesses to the exact same overt Act, or top top Confession in open Court.The congress shall have Power to declare the punishment of Treason, yet no Attainder that Treason shall work Corruption that Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life the the human being attainted.
Article IVSection 1Section 2Section 3Section 4
Full Faith and also Credit shall be offered in every State to the general public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every various other State. And also the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the manner in which together Acts, Records and also Proceedings shall be proved, and also the impact thereof.
The citizens of each State shall be entitled to every Privileges and also Immunities of citizens in the numerous States.
A person charged in any State v Treason, Felony, or various other Crime, that shall flee from Justice, and also be found in another State, chandelier on demand of the executive authority of the State indigenous which he fled, be delivered up, to be gotten rid of to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person hosted to company or work in one State, under the legislations thereof, escaping into another, shall, in repercussion of any Law or Regulation therein, it is in discharged native such organization or Labour, but shall be ceded up on insurance claim of the Party to who such organization or labour may it is in due.
New States might be admitted by the Congress right into this Union; yet no brand-new State shall be created or put up within the Jurisdiction of any kind of other State; nor any type of State be developed by the Junction of two or an ext States, or components of States, there is no the Consent of the Legislatures the the says concerned and of the Congress.
The congress shall have Power come dispose of and make all needful Rules and also Regulations respecting the region or various other Property belonging to the joined States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed regarding Prejudice any type of Claims of the united States, or that any particular State.
The United states shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government, and shall safeguard each of them versus Invasion; and also on application of the Legislature, or the the executive, management (when the Legislature can not be convened) versus domestic Violence.
Article VThe Congress, whenever two thirds the both residences shall deem that necessary, shall propose Amendments come this Constitution, or, ~ above the applications of the Legislatures of 2 thirds the the number of States, shall speak to a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in one of two people Case, candlestick be valid to every Intents and Purposes, as component of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths that the number of States, or through Conventions in 3 fourths thereof, together the one or the other mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; listed that no amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and also eight chandelier in any Manner affect the an initial and fourth Clauses in the 9th Section of the very first Article; and that no State, there is no its Consent, shall be deprived the its equal Suffrage in the dearteassociazione.org.
Article VIAll fan contracted and also Engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, candlestick be as valid against the United says under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.This Constitution, and the legislations of the United says which shall it is in made in Pursuance thereof; and also all contract made, or i beg your pardon shall it is in made, under the authority of the united States, shall it is in the supreme legislation of the Land; and also the Judges in every State shall it is in bound thereby, any Thing in the structure or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members that the several State Legislatures, and all executive and also judicial Officers, both the the unified States and of the numerous States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to assistance this Constitution; but no spiritual Test shall ever be compelled as a Qualification to any type of Office or public trust under the united States.
Article VIIThe Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be enough for the facility of this Constitution between the says so ratifying the Same.
Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent that the States current the ten Day the September in the Year the our mr one thousand seven hundred and also Eighty seven and of the freedom of the United claims of America the Twelfth In angry whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
and deputy native Virginia
new Hampshire man Langdon
Massachusetts Nathaniel Gorham
Connecticut Wm. Saml. Johnson
new York Alexander Hamilton
new Jersey Wil: Livingston
Pennsylvania B Franklin
Delaware Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
Maryland James McHenry
Dan that St. Thos. Jenifer
Virginia john Blair—
James Madison Jr.
phibìc Carolina Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
south Carolina J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Georgia william Few
Attest william Jackson Secretary
AMENDMENTSAmendment ns (1791)Amendment II (1791)Amendment III (1791)Amendment IV (1791)Amendment V (1791)Amendment vi (1791)Amendment VII (1791)Amendment VIII (1791)Amendment IX (1791)Amendment X (1791)Amendment XI (1795/1798)Amendment XII (1804)Amendment XIII (1865)Amendment XIV (1868)Amendment XV (1870)Amendment XVI (1913)Amendment XVII (1913)Amendment XVIII (1919)Amendment XIX (1920)Amendment XX (1933)Amendment XXI (1933)Amendment XXII (1951)Amendment XXIII (1961)Amendment XXIV (1964)Amendment XXV (1967)Amendment XXVI (1971)Amendment XXVII (1992)
Amendment ns (1791)Congress shall make no regulation respecting an facility of religion, or prohibiting the complimentary exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the ideal of the human being peaceably to assemble, and to petition the federal government for a redress the grievances.
Amendment II (1791) A well regulated Militia, being vital to the security of a free State, the ideal of the human being to keep and bear Arms, shall no be infringed.
Amendment III (1791)
No Soldier shall, gradually of peace be quartered in any kind of house, without the consent that the Owner, nor over time of war, yet in a manner to be prescribed through law.
Amendment IV (1791)The best of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and also seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, yet upon probable cause, sustained by Oath or affirmation, and an especially describing the ar to be searched, and the persons or things to it is in seized.
Amendment V (1791)No person shall be hosted to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, uneven on a presentment or indictment that a cool Jury, except in cases developing in the floor or navy forces, or in the Militia, as soon as in actual service in time of battle or publicly danger; no one shall any kind of person be topic for the very same offence to be twice placed in jeopardy that life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any kind of criminal situation to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived that life, liberty, or property, without due procedure of law; no one shall private property be taken for public use, without simply compensation.
Amendment using (1791)In every criminal prosecutions, the accused shall gain the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and also district wherein the crime shall have actually been committed, which ar shall have actually been formerly ascertained by law, and also to be notified of the nature and also cause the the accusation; come be confronted with the witnesses versus him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the help of Counsel for his defence.
Amendment VII (1791)In Suits at common law, whereby the worth in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the best of trial by jury shall be preserved, and also no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any type of Court that the unified States, 보다 according to the rule of the common law.
Amendment VIII (1791)Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, no one cruel and also unusual punishments inflicted.
Amendment IX (1791)The enumeration in the Constitution, of details rights, shall no be taken to refuse or disparage others kept by the people.
Amendment X (1791)The powers not delegated to the United says by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are booked to the claims respectively, or to the people.
Amendment XI (1795/1798)The Judicial power of the United states shall not be construed to extend to any suit in legislation or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United states by citizens of another State, or by citizens or topics of any Foreign State.
Amendment XII (1804)
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and also vote by ballot for President and also Vice-President, one of whom, in ~ least, shall not be one inhabitant that the very same state v themselves; lock shall name in their ballots the human being voted for together President, and in unique ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they chandelier make distinct lists of all persons poll for as President, and of all persons poll for together Vice-President, and also of the variety of votes because that each, i m sorry lists they shall sign and certify, and also transmit sealed to the chair of the government of the joined States, command to the chairman of the dearteassociazione.org;—The chairman of the dearteassociazione.org shall, in the visibility of the dearteassociazione.org and House of Representatives, open up all the certificates and also the votes shall climate be counted;—The person having actually the greatest variety of votes because that President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having actually the highest numbers not exceeding 3 on the perform of those voted for together President, the house of to represent shall select immediately, through ballot, the President. However in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the depiction from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a bulk of all the states shall be important to a choice. And if the home of to represent shall not pick a chairman whenever the best of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 4th day of March next following, climate the Vice-President candlestick act together President, together in the situation of the death or other constitutional disability of the President—The person having actually the greatest number of votes together Vice-President, shall it is in the Vice-President, if together number be a bulk of the whole variety of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, climate from the two highest possible numbers ~ above the list, the dearteassociazione.org shall pick the Vice-President; a quorum for the objective shall consist of two-thirds of the whole variety of Senators, and a bulk of the entirety number chandelier be vital to a choice. However no human constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible to the of Vice-President that the joined States.
Amendment XIII (1865)Section 1. Neither enslavement nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment because that crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in ~ the unified States, or any type of place subject to your jurisdiction.Section 2. Congress shall have actually power to enforce this write-up by proper legislation.
Amendment XIV (1868)Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the joined States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, space citizens the the united States and also of the State wherein castle reside. No State shall make or enforce any law i m sorry shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the united States; no one shall any type of State deprive any type of person the life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; no one deny to any person in ~ its jurisdiction the equal defense of the laws.Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several claims according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. Yet when the right to vote at any kind of election for the selection of electors because that President and Vice president of the united States, to represent in Congress, the Executive and also Judicial policemans of a State, or the members the the legislative branch thereof, is refuse to any kind of of the male occupants of such State, being twenty-one year of age, and also citizens that the joined States, or in any way abridged, except for joining in rebellion, or other crime, the communication of depiction therein shall be reduced in the proportion i beg your pardon the variety of such male citizens shall bear come the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.Section 3. No person shall be a city council or Representative in Congress, or elector that President and also Vice President, or hold any type of office, polite or military, under the joined States, or under any State, who, having actually previously bring away an oath, together a member of Congress, or together an officer that the unified States, or together a member of any type of State legislature, or as an executive or justice officer of any type of State, to support the structure of the unified States, candlestick have involved in insurrection or rebellion versus the same, or given assist or lull to the adversaries thereof. However Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of every House, remove such disability.Section 4. The validity of the general public debt the the unified States, authorized through law, consisting of debts incurred for payment that pensions and bounties for solutions in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall no be questioned. Yet neither the United states nor any type of State shall i think or pay any kind of debt or obligation incurred in assist of insurrection or rebellion versus the joined States, or any type of claim because that the ns or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims chandelier be hosted illegal and also void.Section 5. The conference shall have actually power come enforce, by suitable legislation, the provisions of this article.
Amendment XV (1870)Section 1. The right of citizens of the United states to poll shall not be denied or abridged by the United states or by any type of State on account the race, color, or previous condition of servitude.Section 2. The congress shall have power come enforce this short article by suitable legislation.
Amendment XVI (1913)The congress shall have actually power come lay and collect counting on incomes, native whatever source derived, there is no apportionment among the numerous States, and also without to the to any census or enumeration.
Amendment XVII (1913)The dearteassociazione.org the the United claims shall be composed of 2 Senators from every State, elected by the world thereof, for 6 years; and also each councilor shall have actually one vote. The electors in every State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most plenty of branch the the State legislatures.When vacancies take place in the depiction of any type of State in the dearteassociazione.org, the executive authority of together State shall problem writs of election to to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any kind of State may empower the executive, management thereof to make short-term appointments till the people fill the vacancies through election together the legislature might direct.This amendment shall not be so construed as to impact the choice or ax of any type of Senator chosen before it becomes precious as component of the Constitution.
Amendment XVIII (1919)Section 1. ~ one year from the ratification that this article the manufacture, sale, or transport of intoxicating liquors within, the income thereof into, or the exportation thereof indigenous the united States and all territory topic to the jurisdiction thereof because that beverage objectives is hereby prohibited.
Section 2. The Congress and also the several says shall have concurrent strength to enforce this post by suitable legislation.
Section 3. This post shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as one amendment to the constitution by the legislatures the the numerous States, as noted in the Constitution, within 7 years from the date of the entry hereof to the says by the Congress.
Amendment XIX (1920)
The best of citizens of the United states to vote shall not be refuse or abridged by the United says or by any kind of State on account the sex.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ideal legislation.
Amendment XX (1933)Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice chairman shall finish at noon top top the 20th day of January, and also the terms of Senators and also Representatives at noon top top the 3d job of January, that the year in which together terms would certainly have ended if this write-up had not been ratified; and also the terms of their followers shall climate begin.Section 2. The congress shall rally at least once in every year, and such conference shall start at noon top top the 3d job of January, unless they shall by legislation appoint a different day.Section 3. If, at the time solved for the start of the ax of the President, the President selected shall have actually died, the angry President elect shall come to be President. If a chairman shall not have actually been chosen prior to the time solved for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed come qualify, climate the evil President elect shall act together President until a president shall have qualified; and also the Congress may by law provide for the situation wherein neither a President selected nor a vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall climate act together President, or the way in i m sorry one that is come act shall be selected, and also such human shall act as necessary until a chairman or Vice chairman shall have qualified.Section 4. The Congress may by law administer for the situation of the fatality of any of the persons from who the house of to represent may select a president whenever the ideal of an option shall have actually devolved ~ above them, and for the situation of the death of any kind of of the persons from whom the dearteassociazione.org may select a Vice president whenever the appropriate of choice shall have devolved top top them.Section 5. Part 1 and also 2 chandelier take impact on the 15th day of October following the ratification that this article.Section 6. This post shall it is in inoperative uneven it shall have actually been validated as an amendment to the structure by the legislatures of three-fourths that the several claims within 7 years indigenous the date of the submission.
Amendment XXI (1933)Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment come the structure of the United says is hereby repealed.Section 2. The transport or income into any kind of State, Territory, or possession the the United claims for delivery or use therein that intoxicating liquors, in violation of the legislations thereof, is hereby prohibited.Section 3. This article shall it is in inoperative unless it shall have actually been validated as an amendment to the structure by conventions in the numerous States, as provided in the Constitution, within 7 years native the day of the submission hereof to the claims by the Congress.
Amendment XXII (1951)Section 1. No human shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no human being who has held the office that President, or acted as President, for more than 2 years of a term come which some other person was chosen President candlestick be chosen to the office the the President more than once. However this article shall not apply to any type of person stop the office the President, when this post was proposed by the Congress, and also shall not prevent any kind of person who may be holding the office that President, or acting as President, during the term in ~ which this write-up becomes operative from holding the office of president or acting together President throughout the remainder of such term.Section 2. This write-up shall be inoperative uneven it shall have actually been ratified as one amendment come the constitution by the legislatures the three-fourths of the several says within 7 years indigenous the day of its submission to the states by the Congress.
Amendment XXIII (1961)Section 1. The district constituting the seat of government of the United states shall choose in together manner as the Congress may direct:A variety of electors the President and also Vice President equal to the whole variety of Senators and Representatives in congress to i beg your pardon the District would be entitled if it to be a State, yet in no event much more than the least populous State; castle shall it is in in enhancement to those appointed through the States, however they shall be considered, for the objectives of the election of President and Vice President, to it is in electors appointed by a State; and they shall accomplish in the District and also perform such duties as provided by the twelfth write-up of amendment.Section 2. The conference shall have actually power come enforce this post by suitable legislation.
Amendment XXIV (1964)Section 1. The ideal of citizen of the United says to vote in any kind of primary or other election for President or angry President because that electors for President or evil President, or because that Senator or Representative in Congress, shall no be refuse or abridged by the United says or any type of State by factor of fail to pay any poll taxes or other tax.Section 2. The congress shall have actually power come enforce this post by ideal legislation.
Amendment XXV (1967)Section 1. In instance of the remove of the president from office or the his death or resignation, the Vice president shall end up being President.Section 2. Whenever over there is a vacancy in the office that the angry President, the president shall nominate a evil President that shall take office upon check by a majority vote of both homes of Congress.Section 3. Whenever the chairman transmits to the President agree tempore the the dearteassociazione.org and the speak of the house of to represent his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and also duties the his office, and also until that transmits to them a composed declaration to the contrary, together powers and duties shall be discharged by the evil President as Acting President.Section 4. Whenever the angry President and a majority of either the principal police officers of the executive departments or of such various other body together Congress might by regulation provide, transmit come the President pro tempore of the dearteassociazione.org and also the speak of the house of to represent their written declaration that the president is unable to discharge the powers and also duties of his office, the Vice chairman shall instantly assume the powers and duties the the office as Acting President.Thereafter, when the president transmits come the President pro tempore of the dearteassociazione.org and the speaker of the home of representatives his written declaration that no i can not qualify exists, he shall resume the powers and duties that his office unless the evil President and a bulk of one of two people the principal officers of the executive, management department or of such various other body as Congress may by legislation provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore the the dearteassociazione.org and also the speaker of the residence of representatives their written declaration that the chairman is unable to discharge the powers and duties that his office. Thereupon congress shall decision the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that objective if not in session. If the Congress, in ~ twenty-one work after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if conference is no in session, in ~ twenty-one job after conference is required to assemble, identify by two-thirds vote of both dwellings that the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties that his office, the Vice president shall continue to discharge the same as exhilaration President; otherwise, the president shall resume the powers and also duties of his office.
Amendment XXVI (1971)Section 1. The best of citizen of the unified States, who are eighteen year of period or older, to poll shall no be refuse or abridged through the United states or by any kind of State top top account of age.Section 2. The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
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Amendment XXVII (1992)No regulation varying the compensation because that the solutions of the Senators and Representatives shall take it effect, till an choice of to represent shall have intervened.