A term provided by Aristotle in his Poetics (c. 330 B.C.E.) to refer to the moment in a drama when the protagonist "discovers" something the either leader to or describes a reversal of happiness (Peripeteia)—that is, the protagonist benefit some an essential knowledge that he or she did not have. In a tragedy, the revelation is usually closely linked with the protagonist"s downfall, vice versa, in a comedy it normally signals his or her success.

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The 2nd stanza of the timeless Greek choral ode. It followed the strophe, which to be sung while the chorus go from right to left; to sing the antistrophe, the chorus moved earlier from left to right before beginning the epode.
An adjective describing creating that exhibits a serene and also orderly quality, obtained from Apollo (the Greek god that music and also light and the prize of reason and also culture). In The bear of Tragedy (1872), Friedrich Nietzsche offers Apollonian in conjunction through the hatchet Dionysian (signifying impulsiveness and also irrationality) to refer to the breakable balance to win by the 2 sides of Greek tragedy. Apollonian composing or features are often referred to as classical, vice versa, romantic creating draws ~ above the an ext passionate Dionysian tradition.
The culmination the the play"s fall action, i m sorry in turn adheres to the orgasm or the situation of a drama. Disastrous is one of five structural elements. . . .for evaluating five-act plays and tragedies in particular. . . .The hatchet catastrophe may be applied to the concluding activity of any type of play however is usually reserved for tragedies. . . . The catastrophic often involves the death of the hero, yet some various other tragic outcome may occur instead.
The emotional impact a catastrophic drama has actually on the audience. Aristotle introduced this ax (which have the right to mean one of two people "purgation" or "purification" in Greek) right into literary criticism in The Poetics (c. 330 B.C.E.). The sought to define the feel of exaltation or relief (rather 보다 despondency) the playgoers generally experience during and after the catastrophe (which invariably foregroundssuffering, defeat, and also even death). Aristotle said that when viewing such a work, the audience experience a purging or cleansing of emotions (specifically fear and also pity), which in turn produces the resulting, useful sensation that relief or exaltation. . . .. . . .Some argue the emotions room purged or cleansed with a vicarious to know by the audience with the catastrophic hero and also his or her downfall. . . .Others claim that viewers (or readers) room so recorded up in the emotions of fear or pity for the hero that they forget their own problems and emotional conflicts. Presumably, the expenditure of feel on the hero engenders the valuable feelings associated with the cathartic experience.
Choragos
leader of the chorus, becomes involved in the discussions onstage
Chorus
In Greek drama, a team of people who sang and danced, commenting on the action of the play. A chorus was additionally used come chant odes. The chorus has its beginnings in an ancient Greek spiritual event and was later on used in Greek tragedies and Roman plays.
Originally a choral song in honor of Dionysus (the Greek god the wine) and also thought come have formed a basis for Greek tragedy. Currently the word uses to any kind of literary expression identified by wild, passionate, excited, impetuous language.
The third stanza of the classical Greek choral ode. ~ the strophe and the antistrophe, i beg your pardon involve movement, the chorus sang the epode if standing still.
In Sociology, ethos is the an essential character or heart of a "culture"; the underlying emotion that informs the beliefs, customs, or techniques of a group or society; dominant presumptions of a people or period: In the Greek ethos the individual was highly valued. Ethos is the moral element in dramatic literature that determines a character"s action rather than his or her assumed or emotion.
From the Greek because that "error," an error in referee made by a tragic hero, whether resulting native a absence of knowledge or a ethical flaw, the brings around the suffering, downfall, and often death of that hero. The term is regularly used synonymously v tragic flaw, however this usage is no strictly correct—the error connected in hamartia need not be one inherent in the disastrous hero (a personality flaw, such together hubris) yet may instead result from the hero"s ignorance that certain crucial facts or native something as straightforward as an accident. Occasionally the hamartia may even an outcome from the practice (with destructive consequences) of a virtue (such as bravery). Thus, return the hamartia may and often does an outcome from a catastrophic flaw, the 2 terms are not technically equivalent. Aristotle notes the the hamartia must reason or otherwise bring around the reversal that fortune because that the catastrophic hero. Together heroes have to be no eminently good nor angry so that we deserve to identify with them. For this reason the audience should simultaneously endure both pity (for the hero"s plight) and also fear (of sooner or later falling prey to the very same error).
Greek because that "insolence," extreme pride that constitutes the protagonist"s disastrous flaw and also leads come a downfall. Destructive consequences result when hubris causes the protagonist to neglect a way warning indigenous a god or other crucial figure, to violate some ethical rule, or to shot to transcend simple limits.
A contradiction or incongruity between appearance or expectations and also reality. . . . Irony comes from the Greek eiron, which itself derives native eironeia, an interpretation "dissembling." In Greek drama, the eiron to be a personality who, return weaker 보다 his opponent, the braggart alazon, nevertheless beat him through misrepresenting himself in part way. . . . Three species of irony—dramatic irony, catastrophic irony, and also Socratic irony—can it is in classified as situational irony. The hatchet dramatic irony might be used to describe a situation in which the character"s own words come back to haunt him or her. However, the usually requires a discrepancy between a character"s perception and what the leader or audience to know to it is in true. The reader or audience possesses part material information that the personality lacks, and also it is the character"s imperfect information that encourages or describes his or she discordant responses. The character might respond to a explain or instance in three ways: by do a statement, developing an expectation, or taking part action.
From the Greek for "simple" or "meager," a kind of meiosis (understatement) that entails making one affirmative point by denying its opposite. Litotes is regularly the the opposite of hyperbole and also is frequently used to attain an ironic effect.
Greek word which means "word," "speech," and "reason." In Philosophy, the factor or the rational principle to express in words and things, argument, or justification; especially, personified together the source of bespeak in the universe.
A psychoanalytic term used by Sigmund Freud . . . . Freud coined the term Oedipus facility in reference to the Greek Oedipus legend dramatized through Sophocles" play Oedipus Rex (c. 430 B.C.E.), a tragedy in i beg your pardon the protagonist, Oedipus, blinds himself after learning that the man he killed years ago was his father and also the mrs he married is his mother.
From the Greek for "emotion," "passion," or "suffering," a top quality in a work or a part thereof that provides the reader suffer pity, sorrow, or tenderness . Pathos is identified from tragedy in that pathetic personalities are typically helpless, innocent victims suffering from no error of their own. Disastrous figures, through contrast, possess a heroic grandeur and are in some way at least partially responsible for your fates. This is wherein we have the term pathetic.
Peripeteia
Greek because that "reversal that fortune"—where life goes indigenous "good come bad."
Strophe
That component of the Greek choral ode chanted by the chorus together it danced in one direction (right to left) prior to retracing the steps throughout the antistrophe (left to right).
In the initial Greek usage, a a choral dirge, a song lamenting someone"s death. Threnody is now used essentially interchangeably v any kind of dirge.
A serious and often somber drama, created in prose or verse, that typically ends in disaster and that it concentrates on a character that undergoes unexpected personal reversals. Native the Greek tragoidia (for "goat song"), tragedy is assumed by plenty of scholars to have originally ad to an ancient Greek ritual, add by a choral hymn, in i m sorry a goat to be sacrificed come Dionysus, the god that wine and fertility. The Greek tragedian Thespis is usually attributed with transforming these choral hymns honoring Dionysus into songs that told a story about a famed hero or god. Many scholars likewise believe that Thespis was the very first Greek dramatist to have actually used an actor, rather than merely a chorus, to recount and development the action.
Dramatic irony has regularly been supplied synonymously with tragic irony, but this consumption is incorrect. Dramatic irony wake up in a wide variety if works, ranging from the comic come the tragic. Catastrophic irony is a type of dramatic irony marked by a sense of foreboding. As with all dramatic irony, disastrous irony involves imperfect information, however the consequences of this ignorance space catastrophic, leading to the character"s disastrous downfall. The leader or audience experiences a feeling of foreboding if anticipating this downfall. . . . Incidentally, no dramatic no one tragic irony is minimal to plays; both species of irony may show up in novels, movies, and also other literature forms.

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A personality trait in a tragic hero or heroine that brings about his or she downfall. Traits choose arrogance or hubris (excessive pride) are usual tragic flaws, but a protagonist"s tragic defect is no necessarily a "bad" personality trait; rather, that is simply the characteristic native which the reversal the the catastrophic hero"s happiness ensues. Vessel or jealousy may equally be the trait whose expression leads to the direst the consequences.
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