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Related Topics:Boron nitrideSulfur nitrideAluminum nitrideCalcium nitrideTitanium nitride...(Show more)
Nitride, any type of of a course of chemistry compounds in which nitrogen is combined with an element of similar or reduced electronegativity, such as boron, silicon, and most metals. Nitrides contain the nitride ion (N3−), and, similar to carbides, nitrides can be classified into three basic categories: ionic, interstitial, and covalent.
Certain steel nitrides are unstable, and most react through water to kind ammonia and the oxide or hydroxide that the metal; but the nitrides of boron, vanadium, silicon, titanium, and tantalum are really refractory, resistant to chemical attack, and hard—and for this reason are advantageous as abrasives and also in making crucibles.
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uranium processing: Nitride fuels
Uranium forms a mononitride (UN) and also two higher nitride phases (alpha- and also beta-sesquinitrides; α = U2N3 and...
Preparation the nitrides
There space two principal methods of prepare nitrides. One is by straight reaction the the elements (usually in ~ elevated temperature), shown here because that the synthetic of calcium nitride, Ca3N2.3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2A second method is v the lose of ammonia by heat decomposition of a metal amide, presented here v barium amide. 3Ba(NH2)2 → Ba3N2 + 4NH3Nitrides are likewise formed throughout surface hardening of stole objects when ammonia is heated to temperatures usually in between 500–550 °C (950–1,050 °F) because that 5 come 100 hours, depending upon the depth of hardened case desired.
Another method used to kind nitrides is the palliation of a steel halide or oxide in the presence of nitrogen gas, as, because that example, in the preparation of aluminum nitride, AlN.Al2O3 + 3C + N2 → 2AlN + 3CO
Lithium (Li) appears to it is in the only alkali metal able to kind a nitride, although all the alkaline-earth metals form nitrides with the formula M3N2. These compounds, which can be thought about to consist of of metal cations and also N3− anions, undergo hydrolysis (reaction with water) to create ammonia and also the metal hydroxide. The security of ionic nitrides exhibits a large range; Mg3N2 decomposes at temperatures over 270 °C (520 °F), conversely, Be3N2 melts at 2,200 °C (4,000 °F) there is no decomposition.
The largest group of nitrides room the interstitial nitrides that type with the change metals. They are similar to the interstitial carbides, with nitrogen atoms occupying the interstices, or holes, in the lattice that close-packed steel atoms. The general formulas of these nitrides space MN, M2N, and M4N, although their stoichiometries might vary. This compounds have high melting points, are very hard, and are commonly opaque products that have metallic lustre and also high conductivities. Lock are typically prepared by heater the metal in ammonia at roughly 1,200 °C (2,200 °F). The interstitial nitrides room chemically inert, and couple of reactions including them space known. The many characteristic reaction is hydrolysis, which is usually an extremely slow (and might require acid, as does vanadium, V, in the reaction presented below), to create ammonia or nitrogen gas.2VN + 3H2SO4 → V2(SO4)3 + N2 + 3H2
Because of their chemical inertness and capability to resist high temperatures, interstitial nitrides are useful in several high-temperature applications, including their usage as crucibles and high-temperature reaction vessels.
Covalent binary nitrides own a wide range of properties relying on the facet to i beg your pardon nitrogen is bonded. Some examples of covalent nitrides are boron nitride, BN, cyanogen, (CN)2, phosphorus nitride, P3N5, tetrasulfur tetranitride, S4N4, and also disulfur dinitride, S2N2. The covalent nitrides the boron, carbon, and also sulfur are discussed here.
Because boron and also nitrogen with each other contain the same number of valence electron (eight) as two bonded carbon atoms, boron nitride is claimed to be isoelectronic with elemental carbon. Boron nitride exists in two structural forms, which room analogous come two forms of carbon—graphite and diamond. The hexagonal form, comparable to graphite, has actually a layered structure with planar, six-membered ring of alternating boron and also nitrogen atom stacked in together a method that a boron atom in one layer is located straight over a nitrogen atom in the surrounding layer. In contrast, successive hexagonal great of graphite are offset so that each carbon atom is directly above an interstice (hole) in an nearby layer and directly end a carbon atom of alternate layers. Hexagonal boron nitride deserve to be all set by heater boron trichloride, BCl3, in an overfill of ammonia at 750 °C (1,400 °F). The nature of hexagonal boron nitride space in general different from those the graphite. While both are slippery solids, boron nitride is colourless and also is a great insulator (whereas graphite is black and also is an electrical conductor), and also boron nitride is more stable chemically 보다 graphite. Hexagonal BN reaction with only elemental fluorine, F2 (forming the assets BF3 and N2), and also hydrogen fluoride, HF (producing NH4BF4). The diamond (cubic) kind of BN deserve to be ready by heater hexagonal BN come 1,800 °C (3,300 °F) under really high push (85,000 atmospheres; the pressure at sea level is one atmosphere) in the presence of an alkali metal or alkaline-earth steel catalyst. Favor the analogous diamond form of carbon, cubic boron nitride is extremely hard.
Cyanogen, (CN)2, is a toxic, colourless gas that boils in ~ −21 °C (−6 °F). It can be prepared by oxidation that hydrogen cyanide (HCN). A range of oxidizing agents have the right to be used, consisting of oxygen gas, O2, chlorine gas, Cl2, and also nitrogen dioxide gas, NO2. When NO2 is used, the product NO can be recycled and used again to create the reactant NO2.2HCN + NO2 → (CN)2 + NO + H2O trace impurities in (CN)2 show up to facilitate polymerization in ~ high temperatures (300–500 °C <600–900 °F>) come paracyanogen, a dark hard that has actually a polycyclic framework of six-membered rings of alternate carbon and nitrogen atoms. The cyanogen molecule, N≡C―C≡N, is linear and flammable. The burns in oxygen come produce very hot fire (about 4,775 °C <8,627 °F>).
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Sulfur forms a selection of covalent binary nitrides, yet the two most amazing ones space tetrasulfur tetranitride, S4N4, and also disulfur dinitride, S2N2, because they room precursors come an unexplained polymer referred to as polythiazyl, (SN)x. This polymeric sulfur nitride is unexplained because, also though that is composed exclusively of 2 nonmetals, that exhibits part properties normally linked only through metals. The finest preparation the S4N4 requires bubbling NH3 right into a heated (50 °C <120 °F>) systems of S2Cl2 liquified in CCl4 or C6H6.6S2Cl2 + 16NH3 → S4N4 + S8 + 12NH4Cl Tetrasulfur tetranitride forms thermochromic crystals, which space crystals that change colour through temperature. They room red at temperatures over 100 °C (210 °F), orange in ~ 25 °C (80 °F), and colourless at −190 °C (−310 °F). The crystals space stable in air however will to explode in solution to shock or friction. The compound has actually a cage framework with a airplane of 4 nitrogen atoms with two sulfur atoms above and below the plane. When S4N4 vapour is pumped v silver wool at 250–300 °C (480–570 °F) and low pressure (less than 1.0 mm Hg), an stormy dimer, S2N2, can be condensed. This compound has an essentially square framework with alternative sulfur and nitrogen atoms. Prefer S4N4, it is sensitive to shock and also can explode as soon as heated come temperatures higher than 30 °C (90 °F). In ~ 25 °C (80 °F), S2N2 progressively polymerizes v a ring opening system to polythiazyl, (SN)x. This fairly amazing material has actually a copper colour, a metallic lustre, and the electrical and also thermal conductivity that a metal. It i do not care a superconductor at 0.26 kelvin (K; see superconductivity).