Ammonia, also called azane or nitrogen trihydride, is the simplest not natural base and critical source that nitrogen for plenty of applications.

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Formula and structure: The chemical formula of ammonia is NH3, and its molar massive is 17.03 g/mol.


The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape, with nitrogen connected to the three hydrogen atoms. The nitrogen atom has actually a lone electron pair, which renders ammonia a base. NH3 is a polar molecule i m sorry readily creates hydrogen bonds, making it highly miscible with water.

Occurrence: Ammonia occurs naturally in the body, and is secreted by the kidneys to neutralize excess acid. That is additionally found in small amounts in rainwater, volcanic areas, and even the atmosphere.

Preparation: Ammonia is created commercially by the Haber-Bosch process, in which elemental hydrogen and elemental nitrogen space reacted in the presence of a steel catalyst to offer ammonia gas. The reaction is performed at high pressures and high temperature (400–550 °C).

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Physical properties: Ammonia is a colorless gas with a sharp, penetrating odor. That is boiling suggest is -33.35 °C, and also its freezing suggest is -77.7 °C. NH3 gas can be liquefied, however, due to its incredibly low cook point, fluid ammonia should be save at low temperature and high pressure.

Chemical properties: Ammonia is a weak base. It combine with various acids to form ammonium salts, i m sorry are vital chemicals in numerous industries. Ammonia readily dissolves in water in an exothermic reaction, to form aqueous ammonia solution, likewise called together ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH).

NH3 + H2O → NH4OH

Liquid ammonia is an essential non-aqueous solvent, which deserve to dissolve many alkali and alkaline-earth metals to produce blue-colored conductive solutions.

Uses: Ammonia is the precursor come various vital nitrogen compounds, such as urea, amino acids, phenol, acrylonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, soda ash, nitric acid, and many others. That is also used because that the production of fertilizers, polymers, fabricated fibers (nylon, rayon), explosives (TNT, nitroglycerin), clean agents, and also refrigerants.

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Health hazards/ wellness effects: Although the is widely easily accessible in nature and also used for countless household purposes, ammonia is thought about toxic by inhalation. NH3 fumes have a sharp and pungent odor which deserve to seriously irritate the eyes, nose, mucous membranes and also skin, and also damage the respiratory tract. In ~ high concentrations, exposure come ammonia gas can reason permanent lung damage and also death.