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Electronic configuration, also called electronic structure, the plan of electrons in energy levels about an atom nucleus. According to the older shell atomic model, electrons occupy numerous levels from the first shell nearest the nucleus, K, with the seventh shell, Q, the furthest from the nucleus. In regards to a more refined, quantum-mechanical model, the K–Q shells space subdivided into a collection of orbitals (see orbital), each of which deserve to be inhabited by no more than a pair of electrons. The table listed below lists the variety of orbitals available in every of the first four shells.
The digital configuration of an atom in the covering atomic model might be express by indicating the variety of electrons in each shell start with the first. Because that example, salt (atomic number 11) has actually its 11 electrons spread in the very first three shells as follows: the K and L shells are totally filled, with 2 and 8 electrons respectively, if the M covering is only partially filled v one electron.
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The digital configuration of one atom in the quantum-mechanical model is stated by listing the inhabited orbitals, in bespeak of filling, v the number of electrons in each orbital shown by superscript. In this notation, the electronic configuration of sodium would be 1s22s22p63s1, spread in the orbitals together 2-8-1. Often, a shorthand method is offered that lists only those electrons in excess of the noble gas configuration instantly preceding the atom in the periodic table. For example, sodium has actually one 3s electron in overabundance of the noble gas neon (chemical price Ne, atom number 10), and so the shorthand notation is
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Elements in the same team in the regular table have comparable electronic configurations. Because that example, the aspects lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and also francium (the alkali steels of team I) every have digital configurations mirroring one electron in the outermost (most loose bound) s orbital. This so-called valence electron is responsible for the similar chemical properties shared by the above-mentioned alkali facets in team I: glowing metallic lustre, high reactivity, and an excellent thermal conductivity.