Group IIA: The Alkaline-Earth steels Group IIIA: The dearteassociazione.orgistry the Aluminum Group IVA: Tin and Lead

Group IIA: TheAlkaline-Earth steels

The elements in group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra) are allmetals, and also all but Be and Mg are active metals. This elementsare often referred to as the alkaline-earth metals. The hatchet alkalinereflects the reality that numerous compounds that these metals are basicor alkaline. The term earth was historically supplied todescribe the reality that countless of these compounds space insoluble inwater. Many of the dearteassociazione.orgistry the the alkaline-earth steels (GroupIIA) deserve to be predicted from the habits of the alkali steels (Group IA). 3 points should bekept in mind, however.

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The alkaline-earth steels tend to shed two electron to type M 2+ ion (Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and also so on). These metals are much less reactive than the surrounding alkali metal. Magnesium is less active than sodium; calcium is less active than potassium; and so on. These steels become more active as we go down the column. Magnesium is more active 보다 beryllium; calcium is an ext active than magnesium; and also so on.

The alkaline-earth steels react v nonmetals to provide theproducts intended from the electron construction of theelements.

Mg(s) + Cl2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> MgCl2(s)

3 Mg(s) + N2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> Mg3N2(s)

Ca(s) + H2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> CaH2(s)

Because they room not as active as the alkali metals, many ofthese elements kind oxides.

2 Mg(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 2 MgO(s)

Calcium, strontium, and barium deserve to also type peroxides.

Ba(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> BaO2(s)

The an ext active members of team IIA (Ca, Sr, and Ba) reactwith water at room temperature. The products of this reactionsare what we can expect. Calcium, because that example, loses twoelectrons to type Ca2+ ions once it reacts with water.

Ca " width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> Ca2+ + 2 e-

These electrons are picked up by the water molecules to type H2gas and also OH- ions.

2 H2O + 2 e-" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> H2 + 2 OH-

Combining the two halves that the reaction so that electrons areconserved gives the complying with result.

Ca(s) + 2 H2O(l)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq)+ H2(g)

Although Mg does not react with water atroom temperature, it will certainly react v steam. The assets of thisreaction can"t be aqueous Mg2+ and OH- ionsbecause there is no fluid water around to stabilize these ions.The products of this reaction space H2 gas and magnesiumoxide, MgO.

Mg(s) + H2O(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> MgO(s) + H2(g)

Practice problem 2:

Magnesium reacts through hydrogen to form compound A, i beg your pardon is a white solid in ~ room temperature. It likewise reacts through hydrochloric acid to form gas B and also an aqueous solution of link C. Recognize the commodities of this reactions and also write well balanced equations because that each reaction.

Click below to check your answer come Practice problem 2

Group IIIA: The dearteassociazione.orgistry ofAluminum

The elements in team IIIA (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) have the right to bedivided right into three classes.

Boron is the only aspect in this group that is not a metal. That behaves like a semimetal or even a nonmetal. Aluminum is the third most abundant aspect in the earth"s crust. The is just slightly less reactive than the energetic metals. The various other three facets in this group are energetic metals, however they space so scarce they room of limited interest. Gallium, indium, and also thallium an unified total much less than 10-10% the the earth"s crust.

Discussions the the group IIIA metals therefore revolve aroundthe dearteassociazione.orgistry the aluminum, which have the right to be taken by assumingthat the metal reacts to type compounds in i m sorry it has anoxidation variety of +3.

2 Al(s) + 3 Br2(l)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> Al2Br6(s)

4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 2 Al2O3(s)

16 Al(s) + 3 S8(s)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 8 Al2S3(s)

Aluminum reaction with focused acids to offer Al3+ions and also H2 gas.

2 Al(s) + 6 H+(aq)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 2 Al3+(aq) + 3 H2(g)

It additionally reacts with concentrated bases to give H2gas and also the aluminate ion, Al(OH)4-, inwhich aluminum is in the +3 oxidation state.

2 Al(s) + 2 OH-(aq)+ 6 H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 2 Al(OH)4-(aq) + 3 H2(g)

Group IVA: Tin and Lead

The aspects in team IVA can be separated into three classes:

carbon, which is a nonmetal; silicon and also germanium, which are semimetals; and also tin and lead, which are metals. Tin and also lead are amongst the oldest metals known.

Tin and also lead space much less reactive than any kind of of the teams IA,IIA, or IIIA metals. According to the debate that elementsbecome more metallic and also therefore an ext active together we go under a obelisk of the routine table, lead need to be morereactive than tin.

Lead reacts through air to type a slim coating the PbO and/or PbCO3,which protects the metal from more reaction.

2 Pb(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> 2 PbO(s)

PbO(s) + CO2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> PbCO3(s)

When carefully divided, lead is pyrophoric that bursts into flame in the visibility of oxygen.

Tin does no react v either waiting or water at roomtemperature. When heated until white hot, believe reacts with air toform SnO2.

Sn(s) + O2(g)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> SnO2(s)

At high temperature it also reacts with steam to offer SnO2.

Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g) " width="17"height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/">SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g)

Tin and also lead space both less energetic than aluminum. Neither metalreacts v either dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulfuricacid in ~ room temperature. Tin, when heated, reacts v eitherconcentrated hydrochloric acid or focused sulfuric acid.

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Sn(s) + 2 H+(aq)" width="17" height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/"> Sn2+(aq) + H2(g)

Lead reacts gradually with hydrochloric acid at room temperatureand with focused sulfuric acid at temperatures over 200C.

Pb(s) + 2 H+(aq)" width="17"height="9"sgi_fullpath="/disk2/dearteassociazione.orgistry/">Pb2+(aq) + H2(g)

Tin and also lead room main group metals that form compounds in morethan one oxidation state. As a rule, the lower oxidation statebecomes an ext stable as we go down a obelisk of the routine table.Lead, because that example, is an ext likely come be discovered in the +2 oxidationstate 보다 tin. Thus, while tin reacts v oxygen at hightemperatures to type SnO2, lead creates PbO. (PbO2cannot be formed by the straight reaction between lead and oxygen.)