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The femur is the longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the human body.

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The femur acts together the website of origin and attachment of plenty of muscles and also ligaments, and can be separated into 3 parts; proximal, shaft and distal.

Proximal Femur consists of: femoral head - spicy in a medial, superior, and slightly anterior direction. Ligamentum teres femoris connect the acetabulum come the fovea capitis femoris (a pit ~ above the head); neck (Pyramid-shaped) attaches the spherical head in ~ the apex and the cylindrical tower at the base; 2 influential bony protrusions, the better trochanter and lesser trochanter, that affix to muscle that relocate the hip and also knee.Shaft - has actually a soft anterior arch.

Osteologic Features

Proximal Femur

At the proximal end of the femur, the bulbous femoral head is join to the tower of the femur by the femoral neck. At the base of the neck room the medially oriented lesser trochanter and also laterally placed greater trochanter. A rough line referred to as the intertrochanteric heat connects the greater and lesser trochanter ~ above the anterior aspect of the femur, while the smoother intertrochanteric stakes connects the trochanters posteriorly.<1>

Angle of Inclination
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ie The angle between the femoral neck and also the medial next of the femoral tower viewed from the frontal. Greater at birth yet decreases during childhood and adolescent advance due to loading stresses across the femoral neck in weight-bearing and walking. Common angle the inclination the 125 degrees increases mobility of the femur in ~ the hip joint by place the femoral head and neck in a biomechanically favourable position for walking. Abnormal angle -coxa vara less than 125 degrees; coxa valga better than 125 degrees. Both transform hip biomechanics, leading to malalignment and complications.<1><3>

Femoral Shaft


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The shaft of the femur process on an slope lateral to medial angle, functioning to bring the alignment that the knees and also feet closer come midline.<3>

A cross section of the tower in the middle is circular however flattened posteriorly in ~ the proximal and distal aspects.

Posterior surface column - roughened ridges that bone, dubbed the linea aspera (Latin for turbulent line). These break-up inferiorly to form the medial and also lateral supracondylar lines. The flat popliteal surface ar lies between them.Proximally - medial border of the linea aspera becomes the pectineal line. The lateral border becomes the gluteal tuberosity, where the gluteus maximus attaches.

Distal Femur

Prominent lateral and also medial condyles are discovered at the distal end of the femur. Projecting from every condyle is one epicondyle the act together attachment sites because that the collateral ligaments. The lateral and also medial condyles room separated by the intercondylar notch.<3>

Blood Supply

The femoral artery is the key blood supply to the lower extremity.

The medial circumflex and anastomoses largely supply the femoral head v the lateral circumflex artery and obturator artery (Medial and also lateral circumflex are branches that the femoral artery, obturator artery is a branch that the interior iliac artery).The foveal artery comes turn off of the obturator artery the runs v the ligamentum teres femoris together supportive blood it is provided to the femoral head, yet it is not the main resource during adulthood.

Muscles


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The thigh muscles are divided into the anterior, medial, and posterior and gluteal compartments. The femur sit within the anterior compartment.

Anterior compartment is written of muscles that are mostly used for hip flexion and knee extension. Hip flexors incorporate pectineus, iliopsoas, and also sartorius muscle.Medial compartment’s function is largely leg adduction. It has the adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, and obturator externus.Posterior compartment muscle are mostly hip extensors and knee flexors. That is consisted of of bicep femoris, semitendinous and also semimembranous muscles.

Articulations

Injuries and also Conditions


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Femoral fractures

Fractures of the shaft are commonly a high power injury yet can occur in the elderly as a an outcome of a low power fall.

Patellofemoral ache syndrome (PFPS) - typical sports-related injury the presents as pain about or behind the patella, commonly with one insidious onset. The reason of the condition is unclear, but neurologic, genetic, neuromuscular and/or biomechanical components may contribute to that development.

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Femoral tension fracture A femoral tension fracture is a condition characterized by one incomplete crack in the femur (thigh bone).<5>