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Scientists divide the Earth’s land into what are called vegetation regions. These areas have distinct species of plants, soil, and weather patterns. Vegetation regions deserve to be divided into five significant types: forest, grassland, tundra, desert, and also ice sheet. Climate, soil, the capability of soil to hold water, and also the slope, or angle, of the floor all identify what species of plants will prosper in a particular region.

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Forests are areas with trees grouped in a way so their leaves, or foliage, shade the ground. Forests can be discovered just about anywhere trees have the right to grow, from below sea level to high in the mountains. From tropical rain woodlands near the Equator to boreal woodlands in cold climates close come the Arctic Circle, different varieties of forests can be discovered all end the world.

One means to classify different types of woodlands is by the kind of tree a woodland has. Deciduous forests have trees with eco-friendly leaves that adjust color in the fall and drop completely in the winter. Trees the are usual in deciduous woodlands are oak and maple. The northeastern United says is extended in deciduous forest, and also tourists flock come the area every fall to suffer the orange, yellow, and red pipeline blanketing the region.

Evergreen forests have trees with leaves that stay eco-friendly all year long. Among the places evergreen woodlands can be discovered is top top the opposite side of the phibìc American continent—in the Pacific Northwest, which contains the Canadian district of brother Columbia and also the U.S. Says of Washington and Oregon. The Pacific Northwest is complete of evergreen trees choose fir.

Sometimes forests are divide by the kind of leaves on their trees. Tree in broad-leaved forests have wide, level leaves. Tropic rain forests are a type of broad-leaved forest. Dry rain forests, such together Brazil’s Amazon basin rain forest, are discovered near the Equator. Lock contain much more than fifty percent of the world’s biodiversity, or variety of plant and animal species.

Coniferous woodlands have trees with cones and also needles rather of leaves. Coniferous woodlands have the tallest (coast redwood), biggest (giant sequoia), and oldest (bristlecone pine) trees in the world.

Many forests are mixed, definition they have actually both broadleaf and coniferous trees. The eucalyptus woodlands of Australia are mixed forests, for instance. The evergreen eucalyptus trees are combined with deciduous trees like beech.


Grasslands are, as their name suggests, flat and also open areas where grasses room the dominant form of vegetation. Grasslands have the right to be uncovered on every continent except Antarctica.

Climate theatre a duty in the type of grassland girlfriend get. In cool, gentle climates, like northwest Europe, grasslands are conquered by difficult vegetation, such as oats, the thrives all year. Few of these grasses are so tough and hardy that they are taken into consideration weeds.

In warmer climates, seasonal vegetation survives better. Warm grasslands exist wherein there room seasonal sports in temperature over the food of the year: warm summers and also cold winters. Different grasses grow in various temperatures here. Warm grasslands exist native the prairies of north America come the veld, or countryside grassland, of south Africa.

Tropical grasslands are referred to as savannas. They do well in weather the is warmth year-round and also usually pretty dry. The most famous savannas space in Africa. Serengeti national Park, in Tanzania, has actually three distinct species of savanna grassland: lengthy grass, intermediary grass, and also short grass. This part of the Serengeti is known as the Serengeti Plains, and it support wildlife from aardvarks come zebras.

Grasslands are crucial for milk and dairy production; dairy cows room happiest, and also most productive, in locations in which they can munch on grass every day.


Tundra is one area where tree development is an overwhelming because of cold temperatures and short seasons. Vegetation in tundra is restricted to a couple of shrubs, grasses, and also mosses. Researchers estimate about 1,700 different types live in the tundra, which isn’t much compared to forests and also grasslands. The ground is often too cold because that plants to set down roots, and without plants, few animal types can survive.

There space two types of tundra: alpine tundra and arctic tundra. Alpine tundra is separated from a forest vegetation an ar by the tree line, the area beyond which problems are as well harsh or cold because that tree growth. The weather in alpine tundras is cold, snowy, and windy. Many of the Tibetan Plateau, the so-called “roof of the world” located in Tibet, China, and also India, is alpine tundra. Pets like hill goats live in this vegetation region.

Arctic tundra wake up in the far-northern hemisphere the the Earth. It has a bare landscape and is frozen for lot of the year. Here, the tundra can encompass permafrost, or soil that is permanently frozen. Russia and Canada have large areas that arctic tundra. During the summer, the permafrost thaws simply a bit, enabling some plants to grow in the wet, marshy ground. Friend won’t find plenty of mammals in the arctic tundra, however thousands that insects and birds show up every year and enjoy the marshes before they freeze. Amongst the few mammals the actually prosper in the arctic tundra space caribou and also polar bears.


Deserts have virtually no precipitation, or rainfall. In fact, deserts space specifically defined as areas with an average yearly precipitation of less than 10 inches every year. Deserts usually have actually really high daytime temperatures, short nighttime temperatures, and really low humidity.

Desert floor is regularly sandy, rocky, or gravely. Tree life is highly committed to adapt to this coarse, dry conditions, with long roots, small leaves, tribe that save water, and also prickly spines the discourage animals from emotional or eating them. Cactuses, i beg your pardon are aboriginal to deserts in North and South America, are an instance of this sort of plant. In spite of the barren look of warm deserts, they are complete of animal life. Most desert animals, such together lizards or snakes, space nocturnal, meaning they are active at night. Nocturnal pets take advantage of the cooler nighttime temperatures of the warm desert.

Not all deserts space hot and also sandy, however. The largest desert in the people is the Antarctic Desert, which takes up many of the continent that Antarctica. In the Antarctic Desert, ice sheets cover barren rock. Couple of animals can live in the Antarctic Desert. Those that execute are frequently microscopic, such together lice.

Ice Sheet

The exciting thing about the ice cream sheet “vegetation region” is that there really isn’t any type of vegetation there at all! An ice cream sheet is a big stretch the glacier ice that covers the soil all about it for an ext than 50,000 square kilometers (20,000 square miles). Currently, the only ice sheets room in Antarctica and also Greenland. Don’t confused the ice cream sheets, called polar ice cream caps, with various other ice shelves or glaciers; an ice cream sheet is much, much bigger.

Ice sheets are essential research sites because that scientists. The Antarctic ice sheet is a document of Earth’s atmospheric changes. By looking at layers in the ice, scientists deserve to keep track of different levels of air pollution or volcano gases in the atmosphere. The 1883 eruption of the Indonesian island volcano the Krakatoa have the right to be located and dated by the distinct air bubbles in the Antarctic ice sheet, for instance.

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Scientists are additionally studying ice sheets to measure up the rate of melting ice. Components of the Greenland ice sheet were as soon as thought to be permanent, yet they are now melting in ~ a quick pace.