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Key People:Leonardo da VinciAbraham OrteliusAaron ArrowsmithJohn AdairJohn George Bartholomew...(Show more)Related Topics:navigation chartglobeweather maptopographic mapitinerarium...(Show more)

map, graphic representation, drawn to scale and usually top top a flat surface, the features—for example, geographical, geological, or geopolitical—of one area the the planet or of any type of other celestial body. Globes room maps stood for on the surface ar of a sphere. Cartography is the art and also science of make maps and charts.

In order to suggest the facets of precise relationships, and also some formal an approach of projecting the spherical subject to a map plane, additional qualifications could be applied to the definition. The tedious and also somewhat abstract statements result from attempts come formulate an accurate definitions that maps and also charts are an ext likely to confuse than to clarify. The words map, chart, and also plat are supplied somewhat interchangeably. The connotations that use, however, are distinctive: charts for navigation purposes (nautical and also aeronautical), plats (in a property-boundary sense) because that land-line references and ownership, and also maps for basic reference.



Cartography is allied with location in its concern with the broader aspects that the Earth and also its life. In early on times cartographic efforts were more artistic than scientific and factual. As man explored and also recorded his environment, the high quality of his maps and charts improved. This lines that Jonathan Swift were inspired by early maps:

So geographers, in Afric maps,

With savage images fill their gaps,

And o’er unhabitable downs

Place elephants for desire of towns.

Topographic maps are graphic representations of natural and man-made attributes of components of the Earth’s surface plotted come scale. They present the form of land and also record elevations over sea level, lakes, streams and also other hydrographic features, and also roads and also other works of man. In short, they carry out a complete inventory the the terrain and also important information for all tasks involving the use and breakthrough of the land. They administer the bases for committed maps and also data because that compilation of generalized maps of smaller sized scale.

Nautical charts are maps of coastal and naval areas, providing information because that navigation. They encompass depth curve or soundings or both; aids to navigating such as buoys, channel markers, and lights; islands, rocks, wrecks, reefs and also other hazards; and far-ranging features that the seaside areas, including promontories, church steeples, water towers, and other features valuable in determining location from offshore.

The state hydrography and hydrographer date from the mid-16th century; their emphasis has become limited to researches of ocean depths and also of the directions and intensities the oceanic currents; though at miscellaneous times they taken on much the the scientific researches now dubbed hydrology and oceanography. The British eastern India firm employed hydrographers in the 18th century, and the very first hydrographer the the royal Navy, Alexander Dalrymple (1737–1808), to be appointed in 1795. A marine observatory and hydrographic office was created administratively in the United says Navy in 1854. In 1866 a hydrographic office was established by statute, and in 1962 it to be renamed the U.S. Marine Oceanographic Office.

Interest in the charting the oceanic locations away native seacoasts developed in the second half of the 19th century, at the same time with the perfection that submarine cables. As expertise of the configuration of the ocean containers increased, the fist of scientists was drawn to this field of study. A feature of naval science because the 1950s has been increasingly detailed bathymetric (water-depth measurement) surveys the selected sections of the seafloor. Along with collection of connected geophysical data and sampling of sediments, these studies assist in interpreting the geologic background of the ocean-covered portion of the earth crust.

Aeronautical charts carry out essential data because that the pilot and also air navigator. Castle are, in effect, small-scale topographic maps on which current information top top aids come navigation have been superimposed. To facilitate rapid recognition and orientation, principal features of the floor that would be visible from an aircraft in trip are presented to the exemption of less essential details.

History that cartography

Centuries prior to the Christian Era, Babylonians drew maps top top clay tablets, of i m sorry the oldest specimens discovered so far have to be dated about 2300 bce. This is the earliest positive evidence of graphic representations of parts of the Earth; it might be assumed the mapmaking goes earlier much further and also that that began amongst nonliterate peoples. The is reasonable to assume that men very early made initiatives to connect with each other about their environment by scratching routes, locations, and also hazards on the ground and afterwards bark and skins.

The faster maps must have been based on an individual experience and also familiarity with regional features. Castle doubtless showed routes to neighbouring tribes, wherein water and also other necessities could be found, and also the places of enemies and other dangers. Nomadic life created such initiatives by recording methods to overcome deserts and also mountains, the relative areas of summer and winter pastures, and also dependable springs, wells, and other information.

Markings on cavern walls the are associated with paints by primitive man have actually been figured out by some excavators as make the efforts to display the video game trails the the pets depicted, though over there is no general covenant on this. Similarly, networks of currently scratched on specific bone tablets could possibly represent hunting trails, but there is definitely no conclusive proof that the tablet computers are indeed maps.

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Many nonliterate peoples, however, are experienced in illustrating essential functions of your localities and travels. Throughout Capt. Charles Wilkes’s exploration of the south Seas in the 1840s, a familiar islander drew a great sketch the the entirety Tuamotu Archipelago ~ above the deck that the captain’s bridge. In north America the Pawnee indians were deemed to have actually used star charts painted ~ above elk skin to overview them top top night marches across the plains. Montezuma is said to have given Cortés a map that the entirety Mexican Gulf area painted on cloth, while Pedro de Gamboa reported that the Incas provided sketch maps and cut some in stone to show relief features. Plenty of specimens of early on Eskimo map out maps ~ above skin, wood, and also bone have actually been found.