THE planet IS no spherical however rather one ellipsoidal form where the north and also south poles space flattened and also the equator bulges. This distinctive shape is called a geoid. In stimulate to uniquely locate attributes on the Earth's surface, a reference system is required. An imagine network of lines referred to as a network or graticule is superimposed on the planet to offer this purpose.

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Although the state grid and also graticule are offered synonymously, there is a ethereal technical difference in your meaning. A graticule is a referencing mechanism tied straight to the Earth's ellipsoidal shape. ~ above the various other hand, a grid is a network that perpendicular lines, much like graph paper, superimposed ~ above a flat document map to carry out relative to express from part fixed allude as origin.

The graticule is created of longitude lines (meridians), which run north-south, and also LATITUDE present (parallels), which run east-west. The longitude lines converge in ~ the north Pole in the northern Hemisphere, and also at the south Pole in the southerly Hemisphere. The equator divides the earth into 2 hemispheres. Every meridians and also the equator are an excellent circles due to the fact that they can type planes that cut the surface and also pass v the center of the Earth. Little circles such together latitude lines kind a airplane that cuts the surface however does no pass through the center of the Earth. In this device of reference, geographic collaborates are measure in units of angular degrees.


There space 360 degrees of longitude about the equator, v each meridian numbered native 0 to 180 levels east and west such that the 180 degree meridian is on the opposite side of the earth from Greenwich, England. There space 180 degrees of latitude from pole to pole, through the equator gift 0 degrees and the north and also south poles being 90 degrees. Each degree is separated into 60 minute (60') and also each minute is divided into 60 secs (60”). The north-south line is called the element meridian, which has actually been arbitrarily collection to pass through the imperial Observatory in Greenwich, England. The longitude is measured as the angle between the point, the facility of the Earth, and the prime meridian in ~ the exact same latitude. West is positive and east is negative, meeting at 180 degrees at the worldwide dateline. The east-west line complies with the equator and also is midway between the north and south poles. Levels of latitude are measured together the angle between the suggest on the surface, the facility of the Earth, and also a suggest on the equator at the same longitude. In this graticule reference system, the dimension of the cells is biggest at the equator and also the zones are square. At the poles, the zones are smallest and triangular.

When the three-dimensional earth is projected depend a flat file map there room distortions in distance, area, and direction, and the projection procedure attempts to minimize these distortions once transferring the curved earth to the level map. The projection procedure affects both the graticule and also Earth features. On the flat map there is no organic reference point, but one deserve to be characterized using an arbitrary system of coordinates. A network of intersecting parallel and also perpendicular lines is inserted over the projected map such the the beginning of the network lines autumn on a point of interest on the map. This setup is referred to as a grid reference system, and also every point on the flat map have the right to be located with a distinctive X and Y coordinate. Usually, the X collaborates are referred to as eastings and the Y coordinate as northings. An instance of a grid device is the global Transverse Mercator (UTM) system.

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Graticules are constantly expressed in geographic coordinates (latitude and also longitude) when grids room expressed in some locally characterized X and also Y name: coordinates system. In projected coordinate systems, graticules will show up as bent lines (when necessary) to monitor the curved kind of the meridians of longitude or parallels of latitude in the projection. Grids, however, will constantly appear as an plan of horizontal and also vertical directly lines.