Let’s testimonial our audit cycle again. We have completed the first two columns and also now we have the last column which represents the closing (or archive) process.

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Accounting bike
1. Analysis Transactions5. Prepare Adjusting newspaper Entries9. Prepare closeup of the door Entries
2. Prepare newspaper Entries6. Write-up Adjusting journal Entries10. Short article Closing Entries
3. Write-up journal Entries7. Prepare readjusted Trial Balance11. Prepare Post-Closing trial Balance
4. Prepare Unadjusted attempt Balance8. Prepare jae won Statements

Accounts are two various groups:

Permanent – balance paper accounts consisting of assets, liabilities, and also most equity accounts. These account balances role over right into the next period. So, the finishing balance the this period will certainly be the start balance for following period.Temporary – revenues, expenses, dividends (or withdrawals) account. This account balances perform not role over into the next duration after closing. The closing process reduces revenue, expense, and dividends account balances (temporary accounts) to zero so they are prepared to receive data because that the next accountancy period.

Accountants may perform the closing procedure monthly or annually. The closeup of the door entries room the journal entry kind of the statement of kept Earnings. The score is to do the posted balance the the retained earnings account complement what we reported ~ above the explain of kept earnings and start the next duration with a zero balance for all temporary accounts.

Remember exactly how at the beginning of the course we learned that net income is added to equity. This is the procedure to make that happen!

The following video clip summarizes exactly how to prepare closing entries.

In accounting, we regularly refer to the process of closing as closing the books. Just revenue, expense, and also dividend accounts space closed—not asset, liability, typical Stock, or Retained earnings accounts. The four an easy steps in the closing process are:

Closing the revenue accounts—transferring the credit balances in the revenue accounts to a clearing account dubbed Income Summary.Closing the expense accounts—transferring the debit balances in the expense accounts to a clearing account dubbed Income Summary.Closing the Income review account—transferring the balance of the Income an introduction account to the Retained earnings account.Closing the dividends account—transferring the debit balance of the dividends account to the Retained revenue account.

 Let’s review what us know around these accounts:

Increase withDecrease with
RevenueCreditDebit
ExpenseDebitCredit
DividendsDebitCredit

If we desire to make the account balance zero, we will certainly decrease the account. We usage a brand-new temporary closing account called income summary to store the closeup of the door items until we get close income review into maintained Earnings. Come close means to make the balance zero. We will certainly look at the adhering to information because that MicroTrain indigenous the readjusted trial balance:

DebitCredit
Retained Earnings $ 6,100
Service Revenue 36,500
Interest Revenue 600
Salaries Expense 18,360
Rent Expense 1,200
Utilities Expense 500
Insurance Expense 200
Supplies Expense 7,000
Depreciation Expense 750

Notice how the retained income balance is $6,100? top top the explain of preserved earnings, us reported the ending balance of retained earnings to it is in $15,190. We should do the closeup of the door entries to do them match and also zero the end the short-lived accounts.

Step 1: nearby Revenue accounts

Close means to make the balance zero. We see from the adjusted trial balance the our revenue accounts have actually a credit balance. To make them zero we want to diminish the balance or carry out the opposite. We will debit the revenue accounts and credit the Income an overview account. The credit transaction to income an introduction should same the total revenue from the revenue statement.

DebitCredit
Service Revenue 36,500
Interest Revenue 600
revenue Summary 37,100

Step 2: Close Expense accounts

The cost accounts have actually debit balances therefore to get rid of their balances us will execute the the contrary or credit the accounts. As with in action 1, we will use Income an introduction as the offset account but this time we will certainly debit income summary. The complete debit to income an introduction should complement total costs from the earnings statement.

 DebitCredit
Income Summary 28,010
earnings Expense 18,360
rent Expense1,200
Utilities Expense500
insurance allowance Expense200
offers Expense7,000
Depreciation Expense750

Step 3: Close Income Summary account

At this point, you have closed the revenue and also expense account into earnings summary. The balance in income review now to represent $37,100 credit – $28,010 debit or $9,090 credit balance…does the number it seems to be ~ familiar? It must — income summary should match net income from the income statement. We want to eliminate this credit transaction balance by debiting income summary. What did we carry out with net income? We added it come retained revenue in the statement of maintained earnings. How do we boost an same account in a journal entry? us credit!

DebitCredit
Income review (37,100 – 28,010) 9,090
kept Earnings 9,090

If expenses were greater than revenue, us would have net loss. A net loss would certainly decrease retained earnings so us would do the the opposite in this newspaper entry by debiting kept Earnings and crediting revenue Summary.

Step 4: Close Dividends (or withdrawals) account

After we include net revenue (or subtract net loss) on the declare of maintained earnings, what do we perform next? we subtract any type of dividends to gain the finishing retained earnings. This will be the journal entry form of doing this calculation however be careful because you do not desire to usage the quantity of kept earnings yet DIVIDENDS. We desire to diminish retained income (debit) and remove the balance in dividend (credit) because that the quantity of the dividends. MicroTrain did not pay dividend this year however the entry would show up as:

DebitCredit
Retained EarningsDiv Amt
DividendsDiv Amt

Div Amt means we will use the DIVIDEND amount and not the balance in kept earnings.

Anytime we finish journal entries, we always need to article to the very same ledger cards or T-accounts we have been using all along. As soon as we post, we do not readjust anything native the newspaper entries — us debit (left side) whereby we go in the entries and also credit (right side) wherever us did in the entries. The ledger card for income summary and retained income would look favor this:

Account: income SummaryDebitCreditBalance
(1) near Revenues 37,100 37,100
(2) nearby Expenses28,010 9,090
(3) Close earnings Summary 9,090 0

Account: preserved EarningsDebitCreditBalance
Beginning Balance6,100
(3) Close earnings Summary9,09015,190
(4) near Dividends015,190

The balance in dividends, revenues and expenses would all it is in zero leaving only the permanent accounts because that a write-up closing trial balance. The attempt balance shows the ending balances of all asset, liability and equity accounts remaining. The main adjust from an adjusted trial balance is revenues, expenses, and also dividends are all zero and their balances have been rolled into retained earnings. We perform not need come show accounts v zero balances ~ above the trial balances.

MicroTrain’s article closing trial balance would certainly be:

DebitCredit
Cash 10,000
Accounts Receivable 25,000
Interest Receivable 600
Supplies 1,500
Prepaid Insurance 2,200
Trucks 40,000
Accum. Depreciation-Trucks 750
Accounts Payable 25,000
Unearned Revenue 3,000
Salaries Payable 360
Common Stock 35,000
Retained Earnings 15,190
TOTALS 79,300 79,300

Notice how only the balance in retained earnings has changed and it now matches what to be reported as finishing retained income in the statement of preserved earnings and also the balance sheet.

Congratulations! You survived the complete audit cycle.

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Answer the following questions on closeup of the door entries and rate her confidence to check your answer.