In his inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln made it clear that secession was unconstitutional but that the North would not invade the South. War came when the federal government attempted to resupply forts in the South. When South Carolinians shelled Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, Lincoln issued his call to arms. Other southern states seceded at that point, and the Civil War was under way.

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The Confederates had a geographic advantage in that they were fighting to defend their own soil. They expected support from Britain and France because of those nations" dependence on southern cotton for their textile industries. The Union quickly launched a campaign to seize the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. Initial hopes for a rapid victory died at the First Battle of Bull Run. The Union then adopted the "anaconda plan," which involved imposing a naval blockade on southern ports and slowly crushing resistance on all fronts. The Union"s industrial might was a deciding factor in the long war of attrition.
Both sides passed conscription laws drafting men into military service. Most of the fighting took place in the South; thus, although the North had more casualties, the impact on the South was greater. Its population was smaller, and its civilians experienced local violence and food shortages. The landscape, food supply, and wildlife were destroyed in many areas. In both the North and the South, women played nontraditional roles on farms and even at the battlefront.
Initially, President Lincoln declared that the war"s aim was to restore the Union and that slavery would be maintained where it existed. Gradually, he came to see that the Emancipation Proclamation was justified as a military necessity because it would deprive the South of its labor. He hoped that southern states would return to the Union before his January 1863 deadline, when all slaves under Confederate control were declared free.
Many slaves freed themselves by escaping to Union army camps. Although the Emancipation Proclamation announced the war aim of abolishing slavery, it freed only those people enslaved in areas still under Confederate control. The Thirteenth Amendment freed all enslaved people throughout the United States.
First battle of the Civil War, in which the federal fort in Charleston (South Carolina) Harbor was captured by the Confederates on April 14, 1861, after two days of shelling.
He was the president of the Confederacy during the Civil War. When the Confederacy"s defeat seemed invitable in early 1865, he refused to surrender. Union forces captured him in May of that year.
First land engagement of the Civil War took place on July 21, 1861, at Manassas Junction, Virginia, at which surprised Union troops quickly retreated; one year later, on August 29-30, Confederates captured the federal supply depot and forced Union troops back to Washington
Union General Winfield Scott developed this three-pronged strategy to defeat the Confederacy. Like a snake strangling its prey, the Union army would crush its enemy through exerting pressure on Richmond, blockading Confederate ports, and dividing the South by invading its major waterways.
In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln appointed him head of the Army of the Potomac and later, general in chief of the U.S. Army. He built his army into well trained and powerful force. However, he often delayed taking action against the enemy even though Lincoln wanted him to attack. After failing to achieve a decisive victory against the Confederacy, Lincoln removed McClellan from command in 1862.
Even though he had served in the United States Army for thirty years, he chose to fight on the side of the Confederacy and took command of the Army of North Virginia. Lee was excellent at using his field commanders; and his soldiers respected him. However, General Ulysses S. Grant eventually wore down his army, and Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
He was a Confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches, bold flanking movements, and furious assaults. He earned his nickname at the Battle of the First Bull Run for standing courageously against Union fire. During the battle of Chancellorsville, his own men accidentally mortally wounded him.
President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation on September 22, 1862, freeing the slaves in the Confederate states as of January 1, 1863, the date of the final proclamation.
This amendment to the U.S. Constitution freed all slaves in the United States. After the Civil War ended, the former confederate states were required to ratify this amendment before they could be readmitted to the Union.
Senators and congressmen who, strictly identifying the Civil War with the abolitionist cause, sought swift emancipation of the slaves, punishment of the rebels, and tight controls over the former Confederate states after the war.
After distinguishing himself in the western theater of the Civil War, he was appointed general in chief of the Union army in 1864. After ward, he defeated General Robert E. Lee through a policy of aggressive attrition. He constantly attacked Lee"s army until it was ground down. Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9thm 1865 at Appomattox Court House. In 1868, he was elected President and his tenure suffered from scandals and fiscal problems including the debate on whether or not greenbacks, paper money, should be removed from circulation.
Fought in southern Pennsylvania, July 1-3, 1863; the Confederate defeat and the simultaneous loss at Vicksburg spelled the end of the South"s chances in the Civil War.

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Union General William T. Sherman believed that there was a connection between the South"s economy, morale, and ability to wage war. During his March through Georgia, he wanted to demoralize the civilian populace and destroy the resources they needed to fight. His army seized food and livestock that the Confederate Army might have used as well as wrecked railroads and mills and burned plantations.

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