Water can change from a liquid to a solid or a gas and earlier to a liquid, over and also over again. Adding or removing heat can readjust the state water is in.

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Adding or removing heat

Water, favor all other varieties of matter, requires the addition or removal of power to adjust states. 

A block of ice cream is solid water. When heat (a form of energy) is added, the ice cream melts into liquid water. It has reached that melting point at 0°C. If you were to keep applying heat, then the water will turn right into water vapour (gas). The water has actually reached that boiling point at 100°C.

If warm is gotten rid of from water vapour, the gas cools down and also it condenses earlier into fluid water. Proceed to cool the water (by removing heat), and it becomes solid ice. This is its freeze point.

The procedure of an altering water from a liquid to a gas is referred to as evaporation.The procedure of an altering water from a gas come a fluid is referred to as condensation.


Pressure is the force (e.g. Her weight) used to the surface ar of things (e.g. The floor). As soon as you stand up you apply pressure come the floor. 

Air pressure

Air pressure is the weight of the setting pushing down on the earth. In ~ sea level this push is dubbed 1 Atmosphere. The air press at the top of Mt Everest is fifty percent of this (0.5 Atmosphere). 

If you to be to cook water high up in the mountains, hundreds of metres above sea level, you would not need to heat it together much because there is less air pressure. The air press is lower since there is less weight that air above – the wait is not as dense.

Less pressure means it is less complicated for the molecule to move and less warm needs to be added to reason a adjust in state.

Watch this video to see different temperatures for boiling water at various altitudes.

Water pressure

Water pressure is the load of the ocean pushing under on you. The depth you walk under the sea, the higher the push of the water pushing under on you. Because that every 10 meter you go down, the pressure boosts by 1 Atmosphere. In the deepest ocean, the push is end 1,000 atmospheres, or the very same as the weight of an elephant balanced on a postage stamp, or the equivalent of one human trying to support 50 jumbo jets! 

The Ross ice Shelf is the very same size as France. The sea under the Ross ice Shelf is 200m deep.

What is the water press (in atmospheres) at the bottom of the Ross Sea? (remember each 10 metres the depth boosts pressure by 1 atmosphere).

Pressure and also freezing

Water under pressure is harder to freeze! Water below freezing point can tho be fluid under pressure! watch this video clip where a party of cola placed in the freezer just turns come ice as soon as the lid is eliminated releasing the pressure. 

As water pressure boosts the freezing point of water go down.

This is really important in Antarctica where very deep water might be below freezing temperature. That is called supercooled water. Supercooled water is water that is tho liquid also though that is below the freeze point. 

When walk supercooling occur?

Supercooling is the process of lowering the temperature that a fluid or a gas listed below its freezing suggest without it ending up being a heavy (as in the coke trick presented in the video).

When a liquid reaches its conventional freezing suggest (usually 0 levels Celsius for water) it will certainly crystalize and also become a solid. Because that the water come crystallize and kind ice, there should be a seed crystal roughly which a crystal framework can type to create a solid. You have the right to see this in this video.


The oceans are braided so they don’t freeze at the same temperature as fresh water. Salt lowers the freezing allude so sea water freezes at around -2 degrees Celsius. This is why salt is supplied on some roadways in winter to avoid ice indigenous forming.


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Puddles of water evaporate into water vapour together they warmth up. Heat allows water molecule to move quicker until they space able to break away from each other and also escape as a gas. Image: dearteassociazione.dearteassociazione.org.

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Ice usually forms below 0 degrees Celsius. This is known as its freezing point. What can adjust the freezing suggest of ice? Image: dearteassociazione.dearteassociazione.org.

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This is a demonstrate of water pressure: pressure close to the surface ar is less than the press deeper down. Image: windy Domain.

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Antarctica is well-known as the frozen continent. Exactly how do friend think a small increase in mean temperature could affect Antarctica? Image: dearteassociazione.dearteassociazione.org.