Did you understand that the bones in ours body compromise majorly of phosphate ion (tricalcium phosphate)? It’s not only current in ours bones yet even in our this as well. The sounds fairly interesting, right?

It’s not only necessary for humans but for plants as well. Therefore it’s important we learn around this compound and also see what provides it for this reason special.

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Phosphate or PO43- is a trivalent inorganic anion the is derived from phosphoric acid. It is composed of a number of salts the contain the phosphate ion, the dihydrogen phosphate ion, and also lots that cations (positive charge) prefer calcium, sodium, etc. It occurs normally in food, water too in humans (bones, teeth, and genes).

USA, China, and also Morocco are at this time the leading producers the phosphate as result of the maximum visibility of phosphate rocks (minerals) in this countries.

Now the you realize its importance, permit us study PO43- in detail and learn about its Lewis structure, Hybridization, shape, and also polarity.

PO43- Lewis Structure

Before we start to attract the Lewis framework of PO43- step by action let us look at an overview of how the Lewis framework will look at like.

To attract the Lewis framework of any kind of compound, we constantly use the principle of valence electrons (number of electrons in the outer shell of every atom).

The all at once charge top top the phosphate ion is -3 and also the phosphorus atom is in one oxidation state the +5.

In the Lewis structure of PO43-, p forms solitary bonds v 3 oxygen atoms and forms a twin bond with one oxygen atom. These oxygen atoms lug a fee of -1.

Let us now look that steps required for drawing a Lewis structure:-

1. Counting the total variety of valence electron of the molecule.

2. Locating the main atom of the molecule.

3. Arranging the electrons as lone pairs to type bonds v each atom.

4. Arrangement of the staying valence electron so that each atom completes that octet.

5. Converting potential lone bag into double or triple binding to make the molecule more stable. We also check the formal fee of each atom and make certain that the is the shortest possible.


The ideal Lewis framework of any molecule will have actually 0 as the best formal charge for every atom. The formula because that calculating formal charge is given below:-

Steps of drawing lewis framework of PO43-

1. Let united state count the total variety of valence electrons because that the molecule PO43-. P belongs to team 5, hence has actually 5 valence electrons. O belong to team 6, hence has actually 6×4= 24 valence electrons (4 atom of O).

Now there is a charge of -3 on the whole atom which way there are 3 extr valence electron present. Hence, total variety of valence electron is 5+24+3= 32 valence electrons.

2. The atom which has the greatest valence factor, as well as the highest bonding sites, is termed together the main atom. Complying with this thinking P is the central atom the PO43-.

3. Now we begin arranging these electrons together lone pairs on every atom so the it resembles a chemistry bond. 8 valence electrons are provided up because that this.

4. Now we kinds the staying 24 valence electrons approximately each atom so the it completes its octet. We observe that all 32 valence electron are now used up.

5. Currently we inspect the formal fee of every atom the PO43-. We watch that P has a +1 charge and also all the O atoms have actually a -1 charge. Now, this looks every fine.


But is this the lowest formal charge possible? Remember the the charges on every atom that a molecule do it much more unstable. For this reason the ideal Lewis structure must ideally have each atom with a fee of 0 on it.

In PO43-, P have the right to hold more than 8 valence electron (period 5). So, if P provides a double bond with among the oxygen atoms then ns will have actually a fee of 0 and also so will certainly the doubly bonded O atom. The remainder 3 O atom will have a -1 charge, thus providing rise to the -3 charge on the molecule.

We cannot induce more dual bonds v O for the simple reason that ns will obtain a -1 charge which will make the molecule highly unstable.

Thus, we obtain the required finest Lewis framework for PO43-.

PO43- Hybridization


Let us currently take a look in ~ the Hybridization of the molecule i m sorry will give us much more information on the nature of your chemical bonds.

The Hybridization the PO43- is Sp3.

This can be construed through two methods:-

Method 1: The concept aspect- Hybridization of PO43- can be found by including the number of bonds and also the lone pair that the central atom. The worth of Hybridization (H) is established by:-

If H=2 then it’s sp hybridized.

If H=3, climate its sp2 hybridized.

H=4 means that that sp3 hybridized.

H=5 way that the is sp3d hybridized.

And H=6 means that that sp3d2 hybridized.

In PO43-, we know P is the main atom. It provides 4 sigma bonds v each O atom (double bonds/triple bond are taken into consideration as one sigma bond) and it has actually no lone pairs existing on it. So full value of H is 4, which provides the molecule Sp3 hybridized.

Method 2: Next we pertained to the formula element of hybridization. This is advantageous if friend don’t psychic the theory.The formula to find the Hybridization of any molecule is offered below:-

H= 1/2

H= Hybridization the the molecule

V= variety of Valence electron of the central atom.

C= fee on cation or more electropositive atom.

A= charge on anion or more electropositive atom.

Now let united state look in ~ PO43-,

Here ns is the main atom therefore V =5 (valence electrons)

M= 0, because Oxygen (O), is a divalent atom, so there are no monovalent atoms bonded come the main atom.

C = 0 (charge top top P)

A= -3 (Combined fee of O atoms)



H=4, indicating the PO43- is sp3 hybridized.

Hence, the hybridization that PO43- have the right to be uncovered by utilizing these two methods.

PO43- molecule Geometry

The next necessary step is to recognize the molecular geometry of PO43-.

The molecule geometry the a molecule offers its shape and the shortcut angles.

The molecule geometry the PO43- is Tetrahedral. The bond angle formed between each atom is 109.5 degrees.

The notation AXN have the right to be offered to identify the molecular geometry of any molecule. A denotes the number of main atoms.

X denotes the variety of atoms that room chemically bonded to the main atom. And finally, N denotes the lone pairs on the central atom ( the nonbonding electrons).

Looking at PO43-, A=1 since P is the only main atom. X= 4 together there 4 atoms of O attached to the central atom. N will be zero as all the electrons are connected in bonding and also there are no lone pairs. For this reason using the formula, we acquire the shape for PO43- as AX4.

If we look increase this notation in the VSEPR chart given below we find that PO43- has actually a tetrahedral shape.


PO43- Polarity

PO43- is a non-polar molecule.

Electronegativity distinction is the main factor because of which polarity wake up in a molecule. Polar molecules usually have an asymmetrical shape and also their network dipole moment is never zero.

The electronegativity difference in between P (2.1) and also O(3.5) is higher than 0.5 do the P-O link polar. But is PO43- as a molecule polar?

For that, we first draw that is Lewis structure and then attract the dipole moments for each bond. Because of PO43- having actually a symmetrical structure, the dipole moment cancel each various other out rendering the molecule non-polar.

To confirm this fact, we can additionally take a look at its molecule geometry. It has a tetrahedral form with every dipole minute going in opposing direction, making the net dipole moment 0 which makes PO43- a non-polar molecule.


The molar fixed of PO43- is 94.97 g/mol. It is extensively used in toothpaste together polishing and also a conditioning agent. It is additionally used in assorted cleaning agents and pesticides also making the quite useful for acquiring rid the dirt.

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So now, we have learned whatever we should know around the PO43- molecule varying from the Lewis structure, hybridization, molecular geometry, and also polarity.

Now you have actually strengthened her basics because that the molecule P043-. If friend have any doubts concerning the above-mentioned points you re welcome feel cost-free to address me. Examine Well!