The World vast Web Consortium (W3C) is the main worldwide standards company for the World wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3). The W3C mission is to lead the World large Web come its complete potential by emerging protocols and also guidelines that ensure the long-term expansion of the Web.
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Contents:1 W3C History2 Specification maturation 2.1 functioning draft (WD) 2.2 Candidate reference (CR) 2.3 Proposed referral (PR) 2.4 W3C recommendation (REC) 2.5 later revisions3 Administration4 W3C member 4.1 membership benefits5 W3C Standards
Founded and also currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is comprised of member establishments which maintain full-time staff because that the objective of working together in the advance of standards for the World wide Web. Together of June 2016, the World vast Web Consortium (W3C) has an ext than 420 members.
The W3C likewise engages in education and also outreach, creates software and serves together an open forum because that discussion about the Web.
The World large Web Consortium (W3C) was established by Tim Berners-Lee after the left the European company for Nuclear research (CERN) in October, 1994. That was started at the Massachusetts academy of an innovation Laboratory for computer system Science (MIT/LCS, CSAIL) with assistance from the european Commission and the Defense advanced Research Projects firm (DARPA), which had actually pioneered the Internet and also its predecessor ARPANET.
The company tries to foster compatibility and agreement among industry members in the fostering of brand-new standards characterized by the W3C. Incompatible versions of HTML are offered by various vendors, leading to inconsistency in just how web pages space displayed. The consortium do the efforts to acquire all those merchants to carry out a collection of core principles and also components i beg your pardon are favored by the consortium.
It was initially intended the CERN hold the europe branch of W3C; however, CERN wished to focus on particle physics, not info technology. In April 1995, the French academy for study in computer system Science and also Automation (INRIA) ended up being the European hold of W3C, v Keio University ending up being the Japanese branch in September 1996.
Starting in 1997, W3C created local offices approximately the world. Together of September 2009, it had actually eighteen civilization Offices covering Australia, the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and also Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, south Korea, Morocco, south Africa, Spain, Sweden, and also the unified Kingdom and also Ireland.
In October 2012, W3C convened a neighborhood of major web players and also publishers to establish a MediaWiki wiki that looks for to document open internet standards referred to as the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs.
W3C specification maturation
Sometimes, when a specification becomes as well large, the is separation into independent modules which deserve to mature at their own pace. Subsequent execution of a module or specification are recognized as levels and are denoted through the an initial integer in the location (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Subsequent revisions on every level space denoted by an integer following a decimal suggest (e.g. CSS2.1 = revision 1).
The W3C typical formation process is defined within the W3C process document, outlining 4 (4) maturity levels with which each brand-new standard or recommendation must progress.
1 – working draft (WD)
After sufficient content has been gathered from ‘editor drafts’ and also discussion, it may be released as a functioning draft (WD) for testimonial by the community. A WD record is the first form the a traditional that is publicly available. Commentary by essentially anyone is accepted, though no assures are made v regard to activity on any specific element commented upon.
At this stage, the standard record may have significant differences native its last form. As such, anyone who implements WD standards need to be ready to substantially modify their implementations as the standard matures.
2 – Candidate recommendation (CR)
A candidate recommendation is a variation of a traditional that is an ext mature 보다 the working draft (WD). At this point, the team responsible for the traditional is satisfied that the standard meets its goal. The purpose of the CR is come elicit aid native the advancement community as to how implementable the typical is.
The standard record may change further, however at this point, far-ranging features are largely decided. The style of those features can still adjust due come feedback from implementors.
3 – Proposed referral (PR)
A proposed reference is the variation of a typical that has passed the prior 2 levels. The customers of the standard provide input. At this stage, the document is submitted to the W3C Advisory Council for last approval.
While this action is important, the rarely causes any far-ranging changes to a conventional as it passes to the next phase.
Both candidates and also proposals may go into “last call” come signal that any further feedback must be provided.
4 – W3C recommendation (REC)
This is the most mature stage of development. In ~ this point, the standard has actually undergone substantial review and also testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. The typical is now endorsed by the W3C, describe its readiness because that deployment to the public, and also encouraging more widespread support amongst implementors and authors.
Recommendations can sometimes be enforced incorrectly, partially, or no at all, but many standards define two or more levels the conformance the developers need to follow if they wish to brand their product as W3C-compliant.
Later specification revisions
A recommendation may be updated or prolonged by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient an extensive edits accumulate for producing a brand-new edition or level the the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes assorted kinds that informative notes which room to be supplied as references.
Certification the specifications?
Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C walk not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, because that now, that it is not suitable to begin such a program, owing come the danger of creating much more drawbacks because that the community than benefits.
The W3 Consortium is jointly administered by the:
The W3C additionally has human being Offices in sixteen regions approximately the world. They work with their regional web communities to encourage W3C innovations in regional languages, increase the W3C’s geography base and also encourage international participation in W3C Activities.
The W3C has a staff team the ~80 people global as of 2015. W3C is operation by a management team i m sorry allocates resources and designs strategy, led by CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of march 2010), former CTO that Novell. It likewise includes an advisory plank which supports in strategy and also legal matters and also helps resolve conflicts. The bulk of standardization occupational is excellent by external specialists in the W3C’s assorted working groups.
The Consortium is administer by that membership. The perform of members is accessible to the public. Members incorporate businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, governmental entities, and individuals. Establishments join W3C to drive the direction of main point Web modern technology and exchange ideas with industry and research leaders.
The biggest russian search engine Yandex as a member that the W3C:
Membership demands are transparent except for one requirement: one application for membership should be reviewed and approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are declared in detail, yet there is no last guideline about the process or standards by which membership could be ultimately approved or denied.
The cost of membership is provided on a slide scale, depending on the personality of the company applying and also the country in which it is located. Nations are categorized by the civilization Bank’s most recent group by GNI (Gross national Income) per capita.
W3C member benefits
The W3C members themselves have actually indicated the what is most important to them around their member is:Interaction. The opportunity to interact and work straight with the leading companies, organizations, and individuals in the net world.Strategy. The ability to administer strategic direction come the Consortium through testimonial of W3C activity proposals and also operational policies.Participation. Joining in W3C working Groups, attention Groups, and Business Groups, shaping the innovations that permit businesses and also their customers.
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) additionally benefit:Partnership. Through a selection of online and in-person opportunities, W3C helps SMEs accomplish their peers and establish new business relationships.Early Access. Agility can allow SMEs come out-perform their bigger rivals. Agility v Membership can help SMEs remain ahead of the competition and also enter brand-new markets early.Leverage. Building a market roughly a new usage that the Web deserve to be a significant obstacle because that the development of smaller sized companies. To lug an idea deployed come the scale of the Web, W3C standardization carry out a unique opportunity to achieve wide adoption on varied software and devices.Education. The world’s specialists on the web exchange and confront your points of check out in W3C groups. It’s tough to win conversations with W3C partners as a method to find out in depth how the net works, and also how to do it better.Promotion. SMEs can promote your commitment to open standards, through press release and home web page testimonials, sponsorship visibility, interviews, and more.
And research organizations also benefit:Forum because that ideas. W3C is an open forum for the exchange of concepts and an innovation solutions, offering researchers insights from roughly the world.Bridge from research. W3C helps research organizations create a leg from their innovations to market implementation.
W3C standards define an Open web Platform because that application breakthrough that has actually the extraordinary potential to allow developers to construct rich interaction experiences, powered by large data stores, the are easily accessible on any type of device. Back the borders of the platform proceed to evolve, industry leaders speak almost in unison around how HTML5 will certainly be the cornerstone for this platform. But the complete strength of the platform relies on many an ext technologies that W3C and its partners space creating, including CSS, SVG, WOFF, the Semantic internet stack, XML, and a range of APIs.
W3C creates these technical specifications and guidelines v a procedure designed to maximize consensus about the contents of a technological report, come ensure high technical and editorial quality, and also to earn endorsement by W3C and also the wider community.
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W3C continues to evolve to provide the community a productive atmosphere for producing Web standards. W3C standards:are created following a consensus-based decision process;consider elements of accessibility, privacy, security, and also internationalization;reflect the see of diverse industries and global stakeholders;balance speed, fairness, publicly accountability, and quality;benefit from Royalty-Free patent licensing commitments from participants;are stable (and W3C looks for to ensure your persistence in ~ the published URI);benefit from broad review from teams inside and outside W3C;are can be downloaded at no cost;are maintained in a predictable fashion;are strengthened v interoperability testing.
W3C and IETF standards (over internet protocol suite):CGICSSDOMGRDDLHTMLMathMLOWLP3PPROVRDFSISRSKOSSMILSOAPSPARQLSRGSSSMLSVGVXMLXHTMLXHTML+VoiceXMLXML EventsXML SchemaXPathXQueryXSL-FOXSLTWCAGWOFFWSDLXForms