The main physical properties of timber include: color, luster, texture, macro-structure, odor, moisture, shrinkage, interior stresses, swelling, cracking, warping, density, sound - electro - thermal conductivity. Сolor, shine, texture and also macrostructure identify the illustration of wood. Hardwood of different breeds have actually different color - native white - aspen, spruce to black color - ebony. Tannins, resin and pigments, started in cells cavities, make wood more colourfull.

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wood gloss - is the ability to reflect light beam pointedly. It relies on lumber density, size and location that medullary rays, i beg your pardon reflect light rays pointedly, thereby producing the shine on the radial aspect. Beech wood, maple, oak, elm have actually the many characteristic luster. Aspen, poplar and also linden has actually a matte surface as result of a really narrow medullar rays, and thin cells walls. Timber gloss surface ar is enhanced and kept for lengthy periods that time by developing transparent safety - decorate coatings. Texture - is a peculiar pattern formed by the medullary rays, fibers, and yearly great of timber in various contexts. Structure saturation is determined by anatomical functions of arboreous each other structure and the section direction, and also by the color of early and late wood, rippling and by mixed up fibre arrangement.

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Macrostructure is identified by the width of annual rings - the variety of annual rings every 1 cm of segment, measure in the radial direction in overcome section. Softwood have great physical - mechanical attributes when the variety of layers different from 3 come 25. The portion of late timber in lumber is determined by softwood samples. The higher late wood content in timber, the an ext the thickness and far better mechanical timber characteristics. Important oils, resins, tannins and other substances, started in certain tree species, offer them a smell Humidity - is the proportion of moisture mass in a given wood volume come the load of absolutely dry wood, expressed together a percentage. Moisture, soaking the cabinet membrane, called the bound or hygroscopic, and moisture the fills the cavity the the cells and intercellular spaces, named totally free or capillary. Throughout wood drying complimentary water evaporates firstly and also connected water - at the finish of the drying process. The problem of timber, as soon as cell walls contain the maximum quantity of tied water, and only air to fill the cavities, called the border of hygroscopicity. There space the complying with stages of lumber humidity: wet - humidity over 100%, fresh - humidity 50 - 100% waiting - dry humidity 15 - 20% dried - humidity 8 - 12% totally dry - humidity near 0%. Weight and electrical methods are offered for humidity estimation. Using the weight method W,%, humidity is determined by the formula W = 100 (m1 - m2) / m2, whereby m1 - fixed of the wood sample before drying; m2 - mass of the sample in one absolutely dried condition. Using electric method, humidity is figured out by electric moisture gauge. Very first method benefit - is one accuracy, second - is a quickness. Shrinkage - is a reduction of direct measurements and wood volume throughout drying. Shrinkage occurs just during connected water evaporation. Shrinkage in the tangential direction is 6 - 10% in the radial 3 - 5% and also along the grain 0.1 - 0.3%. To decrease of timber volume during linked water evaporation is called volumetric shrinkage. Full volumetric shrinkage of 12 - 15%. Throughout bucking, allowances because that shrinkage are forseen, because carving wood and also procurements have to be that a given size.

internal stresses - are stresses in the lumber - round carving wood and sawn wood without an applications of outside forces. Its reason - is one inequality the moisture distribution along section of drying wood. In majority of hardwood drying technologies, water evaporates firstly from surface ar wood layers. And if it will certainly be much less than hydroscopic limit, that is 30%, shrinkage is happening. In ~ the same time internal layers remain more humid, and this provides the process of surface ar layers shrinkage an ext difficult. In the concern internal stress occurs in timber, aand this tension stretch the lumber out in surface ar zones and also squeeze in internal. As soon as the timber humidity is decreasing out of the hydroscopic limit in inner zone, it will certainly be also dry. In the problem traction stress and anxiety in surface zone is decreasing, however not fully. Because of residual lengthening in surface ar layers common shrinkage will certainly be delayed. The process of technological drying in a vacuum infrared, in i beg your pardon these troubles do not arise, is certain different. Residual interior stresses in the dried sawn lumber could cause changes in straight dimensions and shape that parts during their machining. The visibility of stress in the wood collection with the cutting of the boards strength sections. If instantly after section manufacturing their cogs will remain parallel, there are no internal stresses in wood, if they will certainly disperse, in the external layers - stretching, and in the internal - compressive stresses: if cogs sections will certainly be carried together - in the outer layers the compression, and also in the internal - the tensile stresses. Maintained after drying, the residual stresses could be removed through extr processing that sawn timber, wetting the surface with heavy steam - or steaming water - spraying. Warping - is a change in the kind of the overcome section throughout drying or wetting wood. Warping might be transverse and longitudinal. Lateral buckling is to express by transforming the type of plank sectoin. Its factor - is different shrinkage in the radial and tangential directions.

follow me the length sawn could warp, gaining an arched shape or helical surface shape. During moistening and also increasing of connected water content, timber swelling kakes place - boost of straight dimensions and volume the timber. Sound conductivity - is a material property to command sound. The is identified by the speed of sound spreading in the material. Along the serial in the timber sound diffusion at a rate of 5000 m / s in the radial direction - 2000 m / s, tangentially - 1500 m / sec. Sound conductivity of timber is various in longitudinal and transverse directions. This property of wood and also its capability to resonate - come amplify sound there is no distortion tones is used in the production of musical instruments. The finest material for them - spruce, fir, Caucasian and Siberian cedar. Electrical conductivity of wood is identified by the resistance to the passage of electric current. It relies on wood species, temperature, humidity and the serial of the wood. Electrical conductivity the dry wood is negligible, which permits to usage it as an insulating material - a wall outlet plugs and switches. With rise in humidity native 0 come 30% electrical resistance the wood drops in million times. The electrical resistance of timber along the serial in number of times lower than throughout the grain. Heat conductivity - is the ability of the product to save heat. Wood has low thermal conductivity, because it has actually a many voids filled with air. Therefore, the thermal conductivity the wood relies on that is humidity: the less the moisture, the reduced the thermal conductivity. Mechanical properties incorporate strength, toughness, hardness, elasticity, plasticity, brittleness, raskalyvaemost, the capacity of hardwood to host metal fasteners, stay resistance. To trust - is the ability of timber to resist deterioration (tension, compression, bending, shear, etc.) under the action of exterior forces. Thick wood is generally more durable. Toughness decreases swiftly with the boosting wood moisture. Toughness reduces promptly if over there are any kind of defects in wood.

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depending upon the strength of the product allowable stressуы space established, to which material couls be exposed there is no integrity damages. The value of allowable tension is constantly much reduced than the tensile strength, ie the lowest anxiety values ​​at i beg your pardon a damage of the material takes place. Heterogeneous fibrous wood framework stipulates its unlike in different directions fairly to fibers. That resists the action of forces, tensile or compressive component follow me the grain, and bending forces directed throughout the grain, much reduced resistance come compression throughout the grain of wood and chipping along and across the fibers. Thus, resistance come chipping wood along the grain in 1,3.1,5 times better than the resistance come chipping throughout the grain, and also in a direction perpendicular to the fibers (end-window) - in 3.5 time greater. Influence strength - is the capacity of timber to absorb the job-related without breaking. Hardness - is the feature of timber to withstand the development of human body of a specific form. The hardness of the finish surface is greater tangential and radial hardness to 30% because that hardwood and also 40% because that softwood. Follow to the level of hardness every tree species could be separated into 3 groups: mild - mechanical stamin 40 MPa or less (spruce, pine, cedar, fir, poplar, linden, aspen, alder); solid - mechanically hardness 40,1.80 MPa (larch, birch, beech, oak, elm, elm, elm, sycamore, maple, hazel, walnut, apple, ash) are really solid - mechanical stamin over 80 MPa (locust, birch, steel, hornbeam, dogwood, boxwood, yew). Resilience - is the capability of lumber to gain back the initial shape ~ the termination of the outside forces. If these forces exceed a details amount (the border of elasticity), timber is either destroyed or changeits shape.

Plasticity - is the feature of timber to readjust its initial shape under the activity of used forces and also keep a new form after discontinuation of the force. Bending, stamping, etc are based upon this feature. Decidous hardwood breeds are better come under the bending(oak, ash, etc.) and also absent-mindedly - vascular. Conifers have low ability to bend. Wet lumber has higher ability to bend than dry wood. Fragility - is the capacity of timber to break down suddenly without considerably shape transforming under the action of mechanically forces. Сleavability - is the capacity of wood to break down along the grain throughout penetration a wedge-shaped body into it. Wedge or hatchet, installed into the wood, moves fiber apart, bending them to various sides and also separates one part of fiber native another, creating a crack that goes in prior of the tongue of the wedge. The is straightforward to rest up all the conifers and from hardwoods - beech, aspen, basswood, oak. The capacity of lumber to host metal fasteners - is a feature, defined by the lumber elasticity. Once hammering a nail fibers move apart partially, putting push on the lateral surface, causing the mutual friction, that keeps the nail in the wood. The resistance of hardwood to pulling of screws aproximately in 2 times greater than the resistance of pulling nails. The stay resistance of lumber is characterized by the capacity to stand up to wear and tear, ie, the damage in the friction process. Planks wear and also tear from the lateral surface more than from machined side. Wearand tear decreases with raising hardness and density the wood. Wet hardwood wears out much more quickly than dry. Severability - is a attribute of wood to divide into parts of timber under the action of forces. Machining that wood through the removed of chips is based on this feature - sawing, milling, turning, grinding, and without removing material - cutting materials on shears, punching, chopping or bundling of lumber - wood for logs, hardwood chips ~ above the needle-shaped shaving, a huge chip ~ above the micro - and fibrous.

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