Digestion of food entails both physical and chemical processes. V digestion, big food particles space converted into smaller materials that have the right to be readily absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Mechanical digestion

Food is taken into the mouth where it is damaged down into smaller pieces by the teeth. As the this grip, cut and also chew the food, saliva is released and also mixes with the smaller sized food particles. Saliva moistens and lubricates the food, allowing it come be functioned into a little ball called a bolus, which can then be quickly swallowed.

This mechanical occupational on the food not only considerably increases its surface area yet also permits it to be combined with a digestive enzyme existing in saliva.

Chemical digestion

Mechanical digestion can only break up the food particles right into smaller pieces. A chemistry digestion process called enzymatic hydrolysis can break the bonds holding the molecule ‘building blocks’ within the food together. For example, protein are broken down into their ‘building block’ amino acids. Once released, these small molecules can then be soaked up through the gut wall and right into the bloodstream.

An enzyme is a protein the can manage the rate of biochemical reactions. In enzymatic hydrolysis reactions, an enzyme incorporates a water molecule throughout the bond, enabling it to break.


The basic building block of carbohydrate are basic sugars prefer glucose and also fructose. The bonds holding this sugars together are dubbed glycosidic bonds.


The straightforward building blocks of proteins room amino acids. The bond that host amino acids together are recognized as peptide bonds. To break the peptide binding in a protein, a hydrolysis reaction is needed comparable to that connected in break up carbohydrates. Enzymes well-known as proteases are necessary to break up the protein.

The following instance shows exactly how a peptide bond deserve to be broken. A protease enzyme catalyses this step:

Two amino acids room released – glycine and alanine. Note just how the water molecule splits, through OH added to kind glycine and also the H included to type alanine.

Fats and oils

These macronutrients are created from a combination of glycerol and also 3 fatty acids.

For example, component of the saturation fat found in usual foods prefer meats and also dairy commodities is recognized as glyceryl tristearate. It has the complying with structure:

To convert it right into a kind that deserve to be absorbed into the bloodstream, the bonds indicated with ~ need to be broken. This involves an enzyme referred to as a lipase and water molecules. The assets from this reaction are shown below.

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Fatty acids room either saturated or unsaturated:

Saturated fatty acids have only solitary C–C bonds present in the chain. Unsaturated fatty acids have actually at least one double C=C bond existing in the chain.

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