Flowering plants are split into monocots (or monocotyledons) and also dicots (or dicotyledons). This to compare examines the morphological distinctions in the leaves, stems, flowers and also fruits of monocots and also dicots.

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Comparison chart

Dicot versus Monocot comparison graph DicotMonocotEmbryo Leaf venation Type of pipeline Stomata in pipeline Bulliform cell Flowers Root pattern Secondary growth Stem and vascular mechanism Pollen Presence or lack of timber # that seed pipeline Examples
As the name suggests, the dicot embryo has two cotyledons. Monocotyledons have actually one cotyledon in the embryo.
Leaf veins are reticulated (branched). Leaf veins are parallel.
Dorsiventral Isobilateral
Some dicots space epistomatous i.e., they have actually stomata just on one surface ar on their leaves. Monocots space amphistomatous i.e., monocot leaves have actually stomata ~ above both the upper and lower surface.
Dicot leaves carry out not have bulliform cells. Many monocots have bulliform cells on their leaves to regulate the lose of water.
Petals in multiples of four or five. Might bear fruit ( if tree). Petals in multiples of three.
Taproot system Fibrous roots
Often present Absent
Bundles that vascular tissue arranged in a ring. The vascular system is separated into a cortex and also stele. Bundles of vascular organization scattered transparent the stem with no details arrangement, and also has no cortex.
Pollen with three furrows or pores. Pollen through a solitary furrow or pore.
Both herbaceous and woody Herbaceous
2 seed leaves 1 seed leaf
Legumes (pea, beans, lentils, peanuts) daisies, mint, lettuce, tomato and also oak are instances of dicots. Grains, (wheat, corn, rice, millet) lilies, daffodils, sugarcane, banana, palm, ginger, onions, bamboo, sugar, cone, palm tree, banana tree, and grass are instances of plants that are monocots.

History of the Classification

The classification of flowering plants or angiosperms right into two significant groups was an initial published by man Ray in 1682, and later by the botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789, replacing the previously classifications. According to this classification, flowering plants were separated onto eight major groups, the largest number of species belonging come monocots and dicots.

Seed Coats roughly embryo

The variety of cotyledons differs in the two types of flowering plants, and forms the basis because that the main classification of monocots and dicots. Cotyledons space the seed leaves of the embryo and contain nutrition because that the embryo until it is able to grow leaves and produce food by the process of photosynthesis. Monocots have only one cotyledon if dicots have two.


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A cross-section that tradescantia (monocot) stalk mirroring scattered vascular bundles, bundle sheath, sclerenchyma and also epidermis.

Dicot vs Monocot Stem

The vascular device in dicots is divided into a cortex and stele yet in monocots these distinct regions are absent.

The vascular mechanism is scattered in monocots, with no certain arrangement. However if you take it a look at the cross section of the stalk in dicots girlfriend will uncover the vascular bundles consist of primary bundles developing a cylinder in the centre.


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Scattered vascular bundles in monocot stem
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Vascular majority arranged in concentric circles in dicot stem
Scarlet Star (Guzmania lingulata) is a monocot

Flower Parts

The number of flower parts is different in the two groups. They happen in multiples of three in monocots and also in multiples of four or five in dicots.

Differences in Monocot and Dicot Leaves

Dicot leaves are dorsiventral i.e., they have two surfaces (upper and also lower surface of the leaf) that differ indigenous each other in appearance and structure. Monocot leaves room isobilateral i.e., both surfaces look the same and are structurally the same and are both exposed come the sunlight (usually vertically oriented).

Venation

Leaf veins room arranged one of two people in parallel through the length of the leaf or in a reticulate arrangement throughout the leaf. In most species, monocot leaves have parallel plan while dicots have reticulate venation the leaves.


Stomata

Stomata room pores uncovered in the epidermis of pipeline that facilitate gas exchange, i.e., the procedure by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

Monocot leaves have actually stomata ~ above both their surfaces, but some dicots have actually stomata on just one surface (usually the lower one) of their leaves. Moreover stomata in monocot leaves space arranged in extremely ordered rows, conversely, the dicots have more of a crazy-paving that them.

Stomata are bordered through a pair of committed guard cells that manage the size of the stomatal opening. Monocots and dicots different in the architecture of the security cells; they room dumbbell-shaped in monocots and look favor a pair the sausages in dicots.

Bulliform cells

Bulliform cells help regulate water loss. Castle are current on the upper surface ar of the leaves in part monocots. As soon as water it is provided is abundant, bulliform cells come to be turgid and consequently the sheet straightens up, i m sorry exposes the leaf and leads come evaporation of excess water. Conversely when water is in short supply, bulliform cell shrink and the leaf curls in and also becomes much less susceptible to water loss with exposure.

Dicots perform not have bulliform cell in your leaves.

Pollen

There is likewise a different form of pollen structure current in the 2 classes. Monocots emerged from plants v a solitary pore or furrow in the pollen, vice versa, dicots occurred from plants with three furrows in their pollen structure.

Roots

Roots can develop either indigenous a main radicle or happen in swarm from the nodes in the stem, dubbed adventitious roots. Monocots are known to have actually adventitious roots whereas dicots have a radicle native which a root develops. A fibrous source system, with several moderately branching roots cultivation from the stem, is common in monocotyledons. In contrast, dicots have actually a taproot system, a tapering root that grows downward and has various other roots sprouting laterally from it.


Secondary growth

Secondary growth is discovered in dicots but lacking in monocots. An additional growth helps in the production of wood and also bark in trees.

Examples that Monocots and also Dicots

There are around 65,000 varieties of monocots. Part examples encompass lilies, daffodils, grains, sugarcane, banana, palm, ginger, rice, coconut, corn and onions.

There are around 250,000 varieties of dicots. Examples include daisies, mint, pea, tamarind, and mango.

Exceptions

There room some exception to this classification. Some varieties belonging to monocots deserve to have characters belonging to dicots, because the two teams have a shared ancestry.

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References


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Anonymous comments (5)

May 12, 2013, 2:09am

Under dicots, it claims "may bear fruit," but monocots regularly bear fruit too (ex. Corn). Just nitpicking, but it may cause some confusion.