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Born:June 17, 1882LomonosovRussia...(Show more)Died:April 6, 1971 (aged 88)New York CityNew York...(Show more)Awards and Honors:Grammy compensation (1967)Grammy award (1962)Grammy award (1961)...(Show more)Notable Works:string quartet“Oedipus Rex”“Persephone”“Requiem Canticles”“Symphony in C”“Symphony in three Movements”“The Firebird”“The Flood”“The Rake’s Progress”“The Rite of Spring”“The song of the Nightingale”“The Wedding”“Threni”...(Show more)Movement / Style:Neoclassical art...(Show more)
Igor Stravinsky was a Russian-born composer whose work-related revolutionized music thought and sensibility in the 20th century. His reputation rests top top a few works, significantly The Rite of Spring (1913), wherein he gift a new concept of music including constantly an altering rhythms and also metric imbalances, a brilliantly initial orchestration, and also drastically dissonant harmonies.
Igor Stravinsky’s collaborations with Serge Diaghilev for the Ballet Russes, including The Firebird (1910), make him known overnight. Other compositions had The Rite the Spring (1913), i m sorry provoked among the most famed first-night riots in the history of musical theatre, and also The Rake’s Progress (1951).
Igor Stravinsky’s father, Fyodor, was among the leading Russian operatic basses of his day, and Igor’s mother, Anna, was a talented pianist. Igor married his cousin Catherine Nossenko and also had four children. In 1940, after the deaths of his eldest daughter (1938), his wife (1939), and also his mommy (1939), he married Vera de Bosset.
Igor Stravinsky learned law and also philosophy at St. Petersburg University, indigenous which he graduated in 1905. When studying, he verified some the his musical compositions to composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, who was sufficiently impressed to take it Stravinsky as a exclusive pupil if advising him no to go into the conservatory for conventional academic training.
Igor Stravinsky was always in trivial health—he endured from tuberculosis in the 1930s and also a stroke in 1956—but he ongoing full-scale an imaginative work until 1966. He passed away from heart failure in brand-new York City in 1971. He was 88 years old.
Igor Stravinsky, in complete Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky, (born June 5
Life and career
Stravinsky’s father was one of the leading Russian operatic basses of his day, and also the mixture of the musical, theatrical, and also literary spheres in the Stravinsky family household exerted a lasting influence on the composer. However his very own musical aptitude emerged quite slowly. Together a boy he was provided lessons in piano and also music theory. Yet then he learned law and philosophy in ~ St. Petersburg university (graduating in 1905), and also only gradually did the become mindful of his vocation for musical composition. In 1902 he showed some of his early pieces to the composer Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (whose son Vladimir to be a other law student), and also Rimsky-Korsakov to be sufficiently impression to agree to take it Stravinsky as a private pupil, while at the same time advising him no to get in the conservatory for conventional scholastic training.
Rimsky-Korsakov tutored Stravinsky largely in orchestration and also acted as the budding composer’s mentor, pointing out each new work and also offering suggestions. He additionally used his influence to obtain his pupil’s music performed. Number of of Stravinsky’s student functions were perform in the weekly gatherings that Rimsky-Korsakov’s class, and two the his works for orchestra—the Symphony in E-flat Major and The Faun and the Shepherdess, a song cycle through words by Aleksandr Pushkin—were play by the Court Orchestra in 1908, the year Rimsky-Korsakov died. In February 1909 a short but brilliant orchestral piece, the Scherzo fantastique to be performed in St. Petersburg at a concert attended by the impresario Serge Diaghilev, who was so impression by Stravinsky’s promise as a composer that he quickly commissioned part orchestral arrangements for the summer season the his Ballets Russes in Paris. For the 1910 ballet season Diaghilev approached Stravinsky again, this time commissioning the music score for a brand-new full-length ballet top top the topic of the Firebird.
The premiere that The Firebird in ~ the Paris Opéra on June 25, 1910, to be a dazzling success that made Stravinsky known overnight as one of the many gifted of the younger generation the composers. This occupational showed how totally he had actually assimilated the flamboyant Romanticism and also orchestral color board of his master. The Firebird was the an initial of a series of spectacular collaborations between Stravinsky and Diaghilev’s company. The following year observed the Ballets Russes’s premiere top top June 13, 1911, of the ballet Petrushka, v Vaslav Nijinsky dance the title role to Stravinsky’s music score. Meanwhile, Stravinsky had conceived the idea of writing a kind of symphonic pagan routine to be called Great Sacrifice. The an outcome was The Rite that Spring (Le Sacre du printemps), the composition of which was spread over two years (1911–13). The very first performance of The Rite that Spring in ~ the Théâtre des Champs Élysées on may 29, 1913, provoked among the more famous first-night riots in the background of music theatre. Stirred through Nijinsky’s unusual and suggestive choreography and Stravinsky’s creative and daring music, the audience cheered, protested, and argued amongst themselves during the performance, developing such a clamour the the dancers could not hear the orchestra. This extremely original composition, v its shifting and audacious rhythms and also its unresolved dissonances, was very early modernist landmark. Native this suggest on, Stravinsky was known as “the composer the The Rite that Spring” and the destructive modernist par excellence. But he self was currently moving away from together post-Romantic extravagances, and world occasions of the next few years only sped up that process.
Stravinsky’s successes in Paris with the Ballets Russes properly uprooted him from St. Petersburg. He had married his cousin Catherine Nossenko in 1906, and, after the premiere the The Firebird in 1910, he lugged her and also their two kids to France. The outbreak of people War i in 1914 serious disrupted the Ballets Russes’s activities in western Europe, however, and also Stravinsky uncovered he could no longer rely top top that company as a constant outlet for his new compositions. The war also effectively marooned the in Switzerland, whereby he and his household had consistently spent their winters, and it to be there the they spent many of the war. The Russian transformation of October 1917 ultimately extinguished any kind of hope Stravinsky may have had of return to his aboriginal land.
By 1914 Stravinsky was experimenting a more restrained and austere, despite no much less vibrantly rhythmic kind of musical composition. His musical manufacturing in the adhering to years is conquered by set of quick instrumental and vocal pieces that space based variously on Russian individual texts and also idioms and on ragtime and also other format models from Western renowned or dance music. He increased some of this experiments right into large-scale theatre pieces. The Wedding, a ballet cantata begun by Stravinsky in 1914 yet completed only in 1923 after year of hesitation over that instrumentation, is based on the texts of Russian village wedding songs. The “farmyard burlesque” Renard (1916) is likewise based top top Russian people idioms, if The Soldier’s Tale (1918), a mixed-media item using speech, mime, and dance add by a seven-piece band, eclectically incorporates ragtime, tango, and other contemporary musical idioms in a collection of highly contagious instrumental movements. After civilization War i the Russian layout in Stravinsky’s music started to fade, yet not before it had actually produced another masterpiece in the Symphonies that Wind Instruments (1920).
The compositions of Stravinsky’s very first maturity—from The Rite that Spring in 1913 to the Symphonies the Wind Instruments in 1920—make use of a modal idiom based on Russian sources and are defined by a highly advanced feeling because that irregular metres and syncopation and also by brilliant orchestral mastery. Yet his voluntarily exile native Russia triggered him to reconsider his aesthetic stance, and the an outcome was an important change in his music—he abandoned the Russian functions of his beforehand style and instead adopted a Neoclassical idiom. Stravinsky’s Neoclassical functions of the following 30 years usually take some allude of referral in previous European music—a details composer’s work or the Baroque or some other historical style—as a starting point for a highly an individual and unorthodox treatment that nonetheless seems to depend for that full result on the listener’s suffer of the historic model native which Stravinsky borrowed.
The Stravinskys left Switzerland in 1920 and also lived in France till 1939, and also Stravinsky spent much of this time in Paris. (He take it French citizenship in 1934.) having actually lost his residential property in Russia during the revolution, Stravinsky to be compelled to earn his living together a performer, and also many of the works he composed throughout the 1920s and ’30s were written for his very own use as a concert pianist and also conductor. His important works the the at an early stage 1920s encompass the Octet because that Wind Instruments (1923), Concerto for Piano and also Wind Instruments (1924), Piano Sonata (1924), and the Serenade in A for piano (1925). These pieces combine a Neoclassical technique to style with what seems a self-conscious severity that line and also texture. Though the dry urbanity of this method is softened in such later critical pieces as the Violin Concerto in D Major (1931), Concerto for two Solo Pianos (1932–35), and the Concerto in E-flat (or Dumbarton Oaks concerto) for 16 wind tools (1938), a particular cool losing persists.
In 1926 Stravinsky competent a spiritual conversion that had actually a notable result on his stage and also vocal music. A spiritual strain can be detect in such major works as the operatic oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927), which provides a libretto in Latin, and the cantata Symphony of Psalms (1930), an overtly sacred job-related that is based upon biblical texts. Spiritual feeling is also evident in the ballets Apollon musagète (1928) and in Persephone (1934). The Russian element in Stravinsky’s music periodically reemerged throughout this period: the ballet The Fairy’s Kiss (1928) is based on music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and the Symphony the Psalms has actually some of the neck austerity that Russian Orthodox chant, in spite of its Latin text.
In the years following civilization War I, Stravinsky’s ties through Diaghilev and also the Ballets Russes had actually been renewed, but on a lot looser basis, and the only new ballet Diaghilev i was delegated from Stravinsky was Pulcinella (1920). Apollon musagète, Stravinsky’s last ballet to be an installed by Diaghilev, premiered in 1928, a year prior to Diaghilev’s own death and also the dissolution of his ballet company.
In 1936 Stravinsky created his autobiography. Favor his six later collaborations with Robert Craft, a young American conductor and scholar who operated with him after 1948, this occupational is factually unreliable. In 1938 Stravinsky’s oldest daughter passed away of tuberculosis, and also the deaths the his wife and mother adhered to in 1939, just months before World war II damaged out. Beforehand in 1940 he married Vera de Bosset, whom he had known for numerous years. In fall 1939 Stravinsky had actually visited the United claims to supply the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard university (later published as the The Poetics of Music, 1942), and in 1940 he and his brand-new wife settled permanently in Hollywood, California. They became U.S. Citizens in 1945.
During the years of human being War II, Stravinsky created two essential symphonic works, the Symphony in C (1938–40) and the Symphony in 3 Movements (1942–45). The Symphony in C represents a summation of Neoclassical values in symphonic form, if the Symphony in three Movements successfully combines the vital features the the concerto v the symphony. Native 1948 to 1951 Stravinsky functioned on his only full-length opera, The Rake’s Progress, a Neoclassical work-related (with a libretto by W.H. Auden and the American writer Chester Kallman) based upon a collection of moral release engravings by the 18th-century English artist wilhelm Hogarth. The Rake’s Progress is a mock-serious pastiche of so late 18th-century grand opera however is nevertheless generally Stravinskyan in that brilliance, wit, and refinement.
The success of this late works masked a an innovative crisis in Stravinsky’s music, and also his resolution that this situation was to develop a exceptional body of so late compositions. After civilization War II a new musical avant-garde had arised in Europe that rejected Neoclassicism and also instead declared allegiance to the serial, or 12-tone, compositional techniques of the Viennese composers Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, and also especially Anton von Webern. (Serial music is based on the repetition of a series of tones in one arbitrary however fixed pattern without regard for traditional tonality.) according to Craft, who entered Stravinsky’s family members in 1948 and remained his intimate associate till the composer’s death, the realization the he was concerned as a spent force threw Stravinsky right into a major an innovative depression, from which the emerged, v Craft’s help, into a step of serial ingredient in his own intensely personal manner. A collection of cautiously speculative works (the Cantata, the Septet, In Memoriam Dylan Thomas) was adhered to by a pair that hybrid masterpieces, the ballet Agon (completed 1957) and the choral occupational Canticum Sacrum (1955), the are only intermittently serial. These subsequently led to the choral work Threni (1958), a setup of the biblical Lamentations the Jeremiah in i m sorry a strictly 12-tone an approach of composition is applied to chantlike product whose underlying character recalls the of such previously choral works as The Wedding and also the Symphony of Psalms. In his Movements because that piano and orchestra (1959) and also his orchestral Variations (1964), Stravinsky polished his manner quiet further, pursuing a selection of arcane serial methods to assistance a music of increasing density and economy and also possessing a brittle, diamantine brilliance. Stravinsky’s serial works are typically much briefer 보다 his tonal works yet have a denser music content.
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Though constantly in mediocre wellness (he endured a stroke in 1956), Stravinsky ongoing full-scale an imaginative work until 1966. His last major work, Requiem Canticles (1966), is a profoundly relocating adaptation of contemporary serial methods to a an individual imaginative vision the was deep rooted in his Russian past. This piece is an amazing tribute come the creative vitality that a composer climate in his middle 80s.