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» Ancient Mesopotamia » Ancient Mesopotamia -The Sumerians
» Ancient Mesopotamia - Babylon and Assyria
» The Neo-Babylonian Empire and also the Hebrews
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Ancient Mesopotamia/ productive Crescent The Neo-Babylonian Empire and also the Hebrews

The ancient Fertile Crescent and also Mesopotamia- The Hebrews and the Neo-Babylonian Empire

In this thing we will certainly learn about the Hebrews and also Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonians), two groups of people whose histories ended up being intertwined.

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The ancient Hebrews (2,000s – 586 BCE)

The Hebrews are called after their language called Hebrew, Hebrew is a Semitic language. The ancient Hebrews were nomadic human being who moved throughout the fertile Crescent, lastly settling in a place dubbed Canaan. The Hebrews are a sturdy people;while the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and also Assyrian societies have ended, the Hebrew culture continues to this day, and also has had actually a lasting impact on ours world; this despite the Hebrews gift scattered, enslaved, and also persecuted throughout your history. This particular day their religious beliefs is well-known as Judaism.

A id in one god (monotheism) forbid the Hebrews indigenous worshipping any kind of other gods. Abraham clues the beginning of Hebrew history. Abraham stayed in Ur, where his father was a seller of idols. Abraham rejected his father"s gods and also goddesses, he thought in only one god. Abraham and his wife Sarah left Ur. Follow to Abraham, his god promised him and also his pendant a land lock could call their own. Abraham eventually cleared up in a land called Canaan.

Abraham"s path from Ur to Canaan. Why do you think he did not take a straight route?

Hebrews are also known together Jews, this word comes from one that their old kingdoms recognized as Judah. You may recall from the critical chapter that King Hezekiah that Judah refused to salary King Sennacherib of Assyria tribute, and also Sennacherib got into Judah, attacking the city the Lachish.

Hebrews are likewise referred to together Israelites, a native that comes from Abraham’s grandson, Israel. This was also the surname of the north kingdom of the old Hebrews.

The story the the Hebrew people is told in the Torah, a sacred book to the people.

Atone suggest in their history, the Hebrews ended up in Egypt. Over there are plenty of theories regarding why the Hebrewsleft their homeland that Canaan. We will go into more detail when we study Egypt. Eventually, a male named Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt andback to Canaan.

The Neo-Babylonian realm (626-539 BCE)

The Neo-Babylonian Empire, which consisted of Assyria and Judah. Uncover Jerusalem on the map.

The human being living in Babylonia at this time were the no Ammorites the Hammurabi"s time however a Semitic group dubbed the Chaldeans.

King Nebuchnezzar II, King that Babylon, behind the king is the Ishtar Gate, the northern entrance into the city through its blue, small tiles.

In 612 BCE the Babylonians,led by King Nebopolassar,joined through their allies the Medes and also destroyed Nineveh, this brought an end to the Assyrian Empire. Babylon delighted in one an ext moment of greatness in Mesopotamia.

One of the most well-known kings that the Neo-Babylonian realm was Nebuchadnezzar II, the kid of Nebopolassar. Nebuchadnezzar II rule from 605 to 562 BCE. NebuchadnezzarIIis known forattacking the kingdom that Judah, together Sennacheribhad when attempted however failed a hundred years earlier. Nebuchadnezzar IIwas successful, in 586 BCE, he destroyed theJewishtemple incity that Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar II required thousands the Jews to relocate to Babylon, countless served as slaves. This is known as the Babylonian Captivity.

The Babylonian Captivity

Not all the Jews in Babylon worked as slaves. Daniel, because that example, became an advisor to King Nebuchadnezzar II. Jewish background records the Daniel taken the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar II,after his own Babylonian priests had failed.

Nebuchadnezzar II rebuilt the city that Babylon. Highlights included the north entrance come the city referred to as the Ishtar Gate, devoted the goddess that love and also war, Ishtar. The Ishtar gate was a high archway do from blue, small tiles with huge cedar doors. This door was part of the impressive walls of Babylon.

There is an additional account that Nebuchadnezzar II, it speak of a "hanging gardens" that he built. In ancient times alliances and friendships in between two groups of human being were frequently times strengthened through marriage. King Nebuchadnezzar II the Babylon married Amytis, the average princess. As soon as Amytis moved to Babylon, she to be unhappy. The landscape of her homeland to be mountainous, green, and full that life; Babylon was flat, dusty, and lifeless, except for the area of abundant soil close to the Euphrates river. Amytis became homesick for her land. Nebuchadnezzar II, really much in love through his new wife, ordered that a garden of trees and plants from she homeland be planted, and irrigated on a structure that resembled a mountain. This structure became known as the Hanging Gardens that Babylon. Countless Greek authors who visited Babylon mentioned these gardens, despite Nebuchadezzar II himself never mentions them in ~ all. Some people today think the gardens were just a myth. You can learn an ext about the Hanging Gardens that Babylon, by city hall the video clip below.

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The Neo-Babylonian empire ended v Nebonidas, the last of the Chaldean kings. Nebonidas was unpopular v the priests of Marduk, thefavorite god of Babylon, due to the fact that he favored Sin, the moon god. Part historyrecords thatthe civilization of Babylon opened up the entrances to the city so Cyrus the Great, King the Persia, can enter and also take over from the unpopular Nebonidas. Other accounts phone call of Cyrus holding ago the Euphrates river so his army could enter by means of the dried river bed, i beg your pardon ran v the city. In either case, Cyrus and the Persians came to be the next to overcome Mesopotamia. Through Cyrus as the ruler of Mesopotamia, the Jews were enabled to return to their homeland, as long as they recognized Cyrus as their overlord. We will certainly learn much more about the Persian empire when we study the Greeks.

This is Nebonidas, the last Babylonian king, that may have been so unpopular v his topics that lock may have actually opened the entrances of Babylon to let Cyrus, the Persian king,take the city.
The Jewish Diaspora (Greek word an interpretation -When a specific group of people is compelled to leaving its homeland) an alert that the ancientHebrew world had been relocated from their homeland for many centuries, beginning with the Assyrians and then the Neo-Babylonians. Thegreen route mirrors the Jews return to your homeland, despite under the ascendancy of Cyrus the good of Persia.

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