Oxygen, a chemicalelement v the price P and atomic number 15, is a very reactive nonmetaland a very good oxidizing agent which readily forms oxides which many ofelements and also compounds. At typical temperature and pressure, 2 oxygenatoms bind to form colorless, odorless diatomic dioxygen gas which constitutes21% that the earth"s surface.

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O2 gas providescombustion energy during light and fire. It has actually a very huge biological duty inall living organisms in the type of aerobic moving respiration and also plays a significant role in photosynthesis also. The simple formula because that photosynthesis isgiven below:

6 CO2 (Carbon dioxide)+ 6 H2O (water) + photons (sunlight)→C6H12O6(glucose) + O2 (dioxygen)

You are right here toknow valence electron of an oxygen atom, aren’t you? Don’t worry together with oxygenvalence electrons we will define its valency also. But prior to that let’s havesome an easy ideas around what these two terms are:

Difference BetweenValence Electrons and also Valency

Valence electronsare the total variety of electrons present in the outermost covering of an atom(i.e. In outermost orbital). The valence electrons because that a neutral atom arealways definite, it can not be varied (more or less) in any condition because that aparticular atom and may or might not be same to its valency.


Valency is definedas the total variety of electrons an atom have the right to lose, gain, or share at the timeof bond formation to acquire a stable digital configuration i.e. To complete anoctet. The valency of one atom deserve to be change in various compounds orchemical reactions due to the different bonding circumstances. Many of the timevalency varies/changes due to adjust in oxidation and reduction states.

Oxygen (O) ValenceElectrons

There room foursimple steps to discover out the valence electrons because that oxygen atom which are:

Step 1: discover theAtomic Number


To discover out theatomic number of oxygen, we deserve to use the routine table. With the assist of theperiodic table, we can quickly see the the atomic variety of oxygen is 8. Together itsatomic number is 8, it has 8 protons, and for neutral oxygen, the number ofprotons are constantly equal to the number of electrons i.e. Has 8 electron in itsnucleus.

Step 2: WriteElectron Configuration


Electronconfiguration is the setup of electron on the orbitals. The oxygen atomhas a total of 8 electron so, we have to put 8 electron in orbitals. Theelectrons will certainly be placed in various orbitals according to the power level:<1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f>. Now,

Oxygen electronconfiguration O (8) =1s22s22p4(completeconfiguration).

= 2s²2p⁴(condensed configuration).

Step 3: DetermineValence Shell

As us know, thevalence covering of an atom can be discovered from the highest number of principlequantum numbers which space expressed in the term of n, and also in 2s²2p⁴, thehighest value of n is 2 so the the valence covering of oxygen is2s²2p⁴.

Step 4: FindValence Electrons

The total number ofelectrons present in the valence shell of one atom are referred to as valence electrons,and there space a complete of 6 electrons current in the valence covering of oxygen (2s²2p⁴).Thus,oxygen has actually six valence electrons.

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Valency of Oxygen (O)

There room manydifferent methods to find out the valency of one atom which reflects the capacity ofan atom to bond with other atoms. Valence defines how easily an atom or afree radical can integrate with various other chemical species. The valency of an atom isdetermined based upon the variety of electrons lost, gained, or mutual withanother atom at the moment of bond formation.

An atom is claimed tobe stable as soon as its outermost shells have actually eight electrons (except H & He).If the total number of electrons in outermost shells is between one come four,the atom has positive valency and if electron are in between four come eight, thevalency is calculation by individually from eight and also valency will be zero. Atomshaving 4 outermost electrons possess both optimistic and an adverse valency, andatoms having eight outermost electrons, valency will certainly be zero (i.e. Noblegases).

Elements favor oxygencan with the secure state (nearest inert gas configuration: Ne) by obtaining 2electrons.So the the valency the oxygen is 2.

Mathematically, theelectronic construction of oxygen is 2, 6. And as we know, if electrons inoutermost covering exceeds from 4, it should be subtracted from 8.

ElectronConfiguration the oxygen (O) = 2, 6

We have the right to see the outermost shell of oxygen has actually 6 electrons so, have to subtract it from 8.

8 – 6 = 2

That’s why valencyof oxygen is 2.

Note: In general, oxygenhas a steady oxidation state of -2 in many of the compounds yet it might vary insome compounds because of the different bond stability. Do not confuse v -2, itis simply an oxidation number that have the right to vary from link to compound. But its valencyis 2 just in any case.

In another sense, anoxygen atom can form a maximum of 2 covalent bonds in chemistry bonding (For example:CO2, H2O, etc.), and that what valency is, the maximum capacity to kind bondswith atoms at the time of chemistry reactions.

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We can additionally findthe valency that oxygen v the help of the periodic table. As oxygen belongs togroup 16 (6A or VIA) together with sulfur (S), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), tellurium(Te), polonium (Po), and livermorium (Lv). This group elements are also called chalcogens.All these aspects have a valency of 2.