To describe how a covalent link forms. To use the octet rule to covalent compounds

You have currently seen instances of substances the contain covalent bonds. One substance discussed previously to be water (\(\ceH2O\)). You deserve to tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those the ionic compounds.

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Electron Sharing

Previously, we discussed ionic bonding wherein electrons deserve to be moved from one atom to an additional so that both atoms have an energy-stable outer electron shell. Because most filled electron shells have eight electrons in them, dearteassociazione.orgists referred to as this propensity the octet rule. However, there is another method an atom can attain a full valence shell: atoms can share electrons.

This ide can be illustrated by using 2 hydrogen atoms, every of which has actually a single electron in that valence shell. (For tiny atoms such together hydrogen atoms, the valence shell will it is in the an initial shell, i m sorry holds only two electrons.) We can represent the 2 individual hydrogen atoms together follows:


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The Lewis chart of 2 hydrogen atom sharing electrons looks choose this:


This relenten of molecules is simplified additional by using a dash to stand for a covalent bond. The hydrogen molecule is then represented as follows:


Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, make a solitary bond and also giving each atom a finish valence shell, i m sorry fulfills the octet rule:


The circles present that each fluorine atom has eight electrons approximately it. Just like hydrogen, we deserve to represent the fluorine molecule through a dash in place of the bonding electrons:



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In this molecule, the hydrogen atom go not have actually nonbonding electrons, when the fluorine atom has six nonbonding electrons (three lone electron pairs). The circles show how the valence electron shells room filled for both atoms.

Example \(\PageIndex1\)

Use Lewis diagrams to indicate the formation of the following:

Cl2 HBr


a. When two chlorine atoms type a chlorine molecule, castle share one pair that electrons. In Cl2 molecule, every chlorine atom is surrounded by one octet number of electrons.

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The Lewis diagram because that a Cl2 molecule is comparable to the one for F2 (shown above).