Cross section means the representation the the intersection of an object by a airplane along its axis. A cross-section is a form that is surrendered from a solid (eg. Cone, cylinder, sphere) when reduced by a plane.

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For example, a cylinder-shaped object is reduced by a airplane parallel to its base; climate the result cross-section will be a circle. So, there has actually been an intersection of the object. That is not necessary that the object has to be three-dimensional shape; instead, this concept is also applied for two-dimensional shapes.

Also, you will view some real-life instances of cross-sections such as a tree ~ it has actually been cut, which shows a ring shape. If we reduced a cubical box by a plane parallel come its base, then we obtain a square.

Table that contents:Types of overcome section

Cross-section Definition

In Geometry, the cross-section is identified as the shape acquired by the intersection of hard by a plane. The cross-section that three-dimensional form is a two-dimensional geometric shape. In various other words, the shape derived by cutting a hard parallel come the basic is recognized as a cross-section.

Cross-section Examples

The instances for cross-section because that some shapes are:

Any cross-section of the round is a circleThe upright cross-section that a cone is a triangle, and the horizontal cross-section is a circleThe upright cross-section that a cylinder is a rectangle, and the horizontal cross-section is a circle

Types of overcome Section

The cross-section is of two types, namely

Horizontal cross-sectionVertical cross-section

Horizontal or Parallel cross Section

In parallel cross-section, a airplane cuts the solid form in the horizontal direction (i.e., parallel come the base) such the it creates the parallel cross-section

Vertical or Perpendicular overcome Section

In perpendicular cross-section, a airplane cuts the solid shape in the vertical direction (i.e., perpendicular come the base) such that it creates a perpendicular cross-section

Cross-sections in Geometry

The overcome sectional area of various solids is given here through examples. Let us number out the cross-sections the cube, sphere, cone and cylinder here.

Cross-Sectional Area

When a aircraft cuts a solid object, one area is projected onto the plane. That aircraft is climate perpendicular come the axis the symmetry. Its projection is well-known as the cross-sectional area.

Example: find the cross-sectional area that a aircraft perpendicular come the basic of a cube the volume same to 27 cm3.

Solution: because we know, 

Volume the cube = Side3

Therefore,

Side3 = 27

Side = 3 cm

Since, the cross-section that the cube will certainly be a square therefore, the next of the square is 3cm.

Hence, cross-sectional area = a2 = 32 9 sq.cm.

Volume by overcome Section

Since the cross ar of a solid is a two-dimensional shape, therefore, us cannot recognize its volume. 

Cross sections of Cone

A cone is considered a pyramid with a one cross-section. Depending on the relationship in between the plane and the slant surface, the cross-section or also called conic sections (for a cone) could be a circle, a parabola, an ellipse or a hyperbola.

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From the over figure, we deserve to see the various cross sections of cone, when a airplane cuts the cone in ~ a various angle.

Also, see: Conic Sections class 11

Cross sections of cylinder

Depending on just how it has been cut, the cross-section of a cylinder may be one of two people circle, rectangle, or oval. If the cylinder has a horizontal cross-section, then the shape derived is a circle. If the airplane cuts the cylinder perpendicular come the base, climate the shape obtained is a rectangle. The oval shape is obtained when the aircraft cuts the cylinder parallel to the base v slight sport in the angle

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Cross part of Sphere

We understand that of all the shapes, a sphere has actually the smallest surface ar area for its volume. The intersection the a airplane figure v a ball is a circle. Every cross-sections that a sphere room circles.

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In the above figure, we deserve to see, if a plane cuts the round at various angles, the cross-sections we gain are one only.

Articles ~ above Solids

Solved Problem

Problem: 

Determine the cross-section area of the offered cylinder whose elevation is 25 cm and also radius is 4 cm.

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Solution:

Given:

Radius = 4 cm

Height = 25 cm

We recognize that once the plane cuts the cylinder parallel come the base, then the cross-section acquired is a circle.