Romania is bounded by Ukraine to the north, Moldova to the northeast, the black Sea come the southeast, Bulgaria come the south, Serbia to the southwest, and Hungary come the west. Over there is a specific symmetry in the physical framework of Romania. The country forms a complex geographic unit centred top top the Transylvanian Basin, approximately which the peaks that the Carpathian Mountains and their associated subranges and structural platforms form a collection of crescents. Beyond this zone, the substantial plains the the south and east that the country, their potential increased by the Danube River and its tributaries, type a fertile outer crescent prolonging to the frontiers. Over there is good diversity in the topography, geology, climate, hydrology, flora, and also fauna, and also for millennia this natural atmosphere has borne the imprint of a person population.

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The west Carpathians expand for about 220 miles (350 km) in between the Danube and also Someș rivers. Unequal the other departments of the Carpathians, they perform not kind a continuous range yet rather a swarm of massifs around a north-south axis. Separating the massifs is a collection of deep penetrating structural depressions. Historically, this depressions have worked as easily defended “gates,” together is reflect in their names: the Iron door of Transylvania (at Bistra); the eastern Gate, or Poarta Orientală (at Timiș-Cerna); and, many famous, the Iron gate on the Danube.

Among the massifs themselves, the Banat and also Poiana Ruscăi hills contain a rich variety of mineral resources and are the website of two of the country’s three largest metallurgical complexes, in ~ Reșița and Hunedoara. The marble that Ruschița is fine known. To the phibìc lie the Apuseni Mountains, centred top top the Bihor Massif, indigenous which emerge fingerlike protrusions of lower relief. ~ above the eastern the Bihor mountains merge right into the limestone tableland the Cetățile Ponorului, wherein the erosive action of water along joints in the rocks has created a fine instance of the rough karst kind of scenery. Come the west lie the parallel hill ranges that Zărand, Codru-Moma, and also Pădurea Craiului; to the south, follow me the Mureș River, the Metaliferi and Trascău hills contain a an excellent variety the metallic and other ores, through traces of old Roman mine workings still visible. The west Carpathians normally are much less forested than various other parts of the range, and also human settlement reaches to the greatest elevations.

The good arc the the Carpathians is attach by an external fringe of rolling terrain known as the Subcarpathians and also extending indigenous the Moldova flow in the phibìc to the Motru river in the southwest. It is native 2 to 19 mile (3 come 31 km) broad and get elevations ranging between 1,300 and 3,300 feet (400 and also 1,000 metres). The topography and the milder climate that this region favour vegetation (including together Mediterranean facets as the edible chestnut) and help agriculture; the region specializes in cereals and fruits, and its wines—notably those that Odobești and also the Călugărească Valley—are well-known throughout Europe. The area is densely populated, and also there space serious troubles of economic breakthrough in remoter areas where over there is small scope because that further agricultural expansion.

Tablelands are one more important element in the physical geography of Romania. The tableland of the Transylvanian basin is the largest in the country and has an average elevation that 1,150 feet (350 metres). In the east, in between the outer fringe of the Subcarpathians and the Prut River, lies the Moldavian Plateau, v an mean elevation of 1,600 to 2,000 feet (500 come 600 metres). The Dobruja (Dobrodgea) tableland, an ancient, eroded absent mass in the southeast, has an mean elevation that 820 feet (250 metres) and also reaches a maximum elevation of 1,532 feet (467 metres) in the Pricopan Hills.

Plains cover around one-third the Romania, getting to their fullest breakthrough in the south and also west. Their economic importance has actually increased greatly because the early 19th century. In the southern part of Romania is the Walachian Plain, which have the right to be divided into the Romanian level to the eastern of the Olt River and also the Oltenian Plateau come the west. The whole region is extended by deposits of loess, top top which well-off black chernozem soils have developed, offering a strong base because that agriculture. The Danube floodplain is vital economically, and along the whole stretch the the river, indigenous Calafat in the west to Galați in the east, previous marshlands have been diked and also drained to increase food production. Willow and also poplar woods border the river, i beg your pardon is vital for fishing however much more so because that commerce. River port towns—including Drobeta–Turnu Severin, Turnu Măgurele, Giurgiu, Brăila, Galați, and Tulcea—complement the landscape settlements.

On the north edge of the Dobruja region, adjoining the Moldavian Plateau, the good swampy triangle that the Danube delta is a distinctive physiographic an ar covering some 2,000 square mile (5,180 square km), of i m sorry the bulk is in Romania. The delta rectal the website of an ancient bay, i beg your pardon in ancient times became wholly or partly isolated from the sea through the Letea sandbanks. The delta, which was designated a UNESCO people Heritage site in 1991, contributes about fifty percent of Romania’s fish manufacturing from home waters, with fishing turn off the Danube mouth contributing to the majority of the capture of sturgeon (banned due to the fact that 2006) and also Danube herring. It also is house to hundreds of types of birds, some of which space rare. For this reason the delta an ar is of great interest not only to a growing variety of tourists but additionally to scientists and also conservationists. Two dozen or an ext settlements room scattered over the region, however many room exposed to major flood risks. Sulina and also Tulcea room the significant ports.

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Romania lies in an energetic earthquake zone at the junction of 3 tectonic plates. Disastrous earthquakes in both 1940 and 1977 caused significant damage and also loss the life in Romania.