While a brothers rock band made his name famous virtually 300 year after his birth, Jethro Tull (1664 – 1741) was renowned in his very own right together an agricultural pioneer and the inventor that the seed drill, the horse attracted hoe, and also an improved plough, all major developments in the 18th century farming revolution, a period significant by rapid advances in farming productivity and advances in farming technology.
You are watching: English scientific farmer who invented the seed drill in 1721
Tull was born in Basildon, Berkshire, England in 1664. He learned law and graduated native Oxford university in 1699. Return he was admitted to the bar in the very same year, he never practiced law. Tull began farming top top his father's floor in 1700 and took great interest in farming processes.
At the time, farmers commonly planted chop seeds by transferring the seeds in a bag and also walking up and down the field while randomly throw or broadcast the seed by hand on to the ploughed and also harrowed ground. Tull understood the technique inefficient together the seed was not dispersed evenly and much of it was wasted and also did not take root.
In 1701, Tull occurred a horse-drawn mechanical seed drill. The drill incorporated a rotating cylinder in which grooves were cut to permit seed to pass from a hopper over to a funnel below. The seed were then directed into a channel dug through a till at the former of the machine, and also immediately extended by a harrow attached come the rear. Planting the seed at constant intervals, at a regular depth, and also in a right line minimal waste and also dramatically enhanced harvest yields. According to royal Berkshire History, Tull stated of his invention, "It was named a drill due to the fact that when farmers offered to sow their beans and peas into networks or furrows by hand, they dubbed that activity drilling." Tull's enhanced drilling an approach allowed farmers to sow 3 rows of seeds simultaneously.
Tull took more scientific interest in tree nourishment. He correctly theorized the plants need to be an ext widely spaced and also the soil around them thoroughly damaged down throughout growth. He further theorized the plants surrounded by loose soil would grow far better not only throughout sowing, but in the at an early stage stages of expansion as well.
Tull's theory, however, to be based ~ above a an essential error. He believed that the nourishment i m sorry the plant took from the earth was in the form of minute corpuscle of soil. That did not think that pet manure, which was generally used as fertilizer, noted the plant with nourishment, yet rather it detailed a fermentative action in breaking up the soil particles. He observed no additional value in manure. That was very criticized for this belief.
In 1709, he moved to a parcel of inherited floor in Hungerford, dubbed Prosperous Farm, wherein he ongoing his novel agriculture methods. In 1711, a pulmonary disorder sent him to Europe trying to find treatment and a cure. If traveling, he listed the growing methods work in the vineyards in the Languedoc area that France and also in Italy, where it was usual exercise to hoe the ground between the vines rather than manuring. On returning to prosperous in 1714, he applied the same exercise on his fields of grain and also root crops.
Tull's crops were sown in widely spaced rows to allow the horse, drawing the hoe, to walk without damaging the plants, while enabling tillage to the soil throughout most that the period of growth. This ongoing cultivation of the floor while the plant was growing was the main point of Tull's theory and also the practice proceeds today. He thought that the cultivation of the floor released nutrients and reduced the need for manure. While supposedly successful – he prospered wheat in the same ar for 13 successive years there is no manuring – some believe that is much more likely the the an approach succeeded because it merely prevented weeds from overcrowding and competing v the seed.
At the time, over there was much skepticism toward Tull's ideas. His seed drill to be not automatically popular in England, return it was quickly adopted by the colonists in brand-new England. In 1731, Jethro Tull released "The brand-new Horse Houghing Husbandry: or, an Essay ~ above the principles of Tillage and also Vegetation." The book caused an excellent controversy and his theories fell into disrepute, specifically his opinion top top the value of manure for plant growth.
Although Tull set the structures for modern-day techniques of sowing and also cultivation, a hundred years passed before his seed-drill displaced the ancient method of hand broadcasting the seed. If several other mechanical seed drills had also been invented, Tull's rotary mechanism was a major influence ~ above the agricultural revolution and its influence can quiet be watched in today's methods and also machinery. His seed drill was boosted in 1782 by adding gears come the distribution mechanism.
See more: 2009 D Presidential Dollars : James K Polk 1 Dollar Gold Coin Value
Tull passed away in the town where he to be born in Shalbourne, Berkshire, England, top top February 21, 1741, at the period of 67.