The stomach is a hole intraperitoneal body organ in the left top quadrant the the abdomen, between the esophagus and the duodenum in the cradle tract. The is provided with arterial blood indigenous the celiac trunk and its branches. The veins that the stomach drainpipe into the portal vein, and the lymphatics eventually drainpipe into the celiac lymph nodes. It is innervated through the sympathetic and also parasympathetic concerned system, and the myenteric plexus and submucous plexus that the enteric nervous system. The stomach has four histological layers: the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, and also serosa. The mucosa is inside wall with plenty of glands containing devoted cells that develop various secretions: e.g., parietal cells, i beg your pardon secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor, and also gastric cook cells, i m sorry secrete pepsinogen. Acetylcholine (ACh), gastrin, and histamine space the main stimulators the gastric secretions. Somatostatin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) room the main inhibitors.

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Gross anatomy

Overview <1>

qualities Hollow, muscular body organ place abdominal muscle regions: epigastric, left hypochondriac, and umbilical Anterior come the stomach Diaphragm Posterior come the stomach role


Anatomical parts

part of the stomach Curvatures of the stomach Sphincters that the stomach Gastroesophageal sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter) Pyloric sphincter

The antrum and lower lesser curvature space the most typical sites because that peptic stomach ulcers.


Peritoneal attachments

The stomach is one intraperitoneal organ.

Omentum: extends indigenous stomach (and proximal duodenum) come other abdominal muscle organs Peritoneal ligaments the the stomach


Vasculature, lymphatics, and also innervation that the stomach <1>


Arteries of the stomach framework Origin important features Lesser curvature Superior component Inferior part Greater curvature Superior part Inferior component Fundus Posterior gastric wall
Left gastric artery
best gastric artery
brief gastric arteries
Posterior gastric artery



Veins that the stomach Right and also left gastric veins

Esophageal varices construct in portal hypertension as result of the portosystemic shunting the blood native the left gastric vein (portal system) into the esophageal veins (caval system).

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Innervation that the stomach Name effects Autonomic nervous device Sympathetic Parasympathetic Enteric nervous mechanism
↓ Glandular cheap ↑ Sphincter ton
↑ Glandular secretion ↓ Sphincter tone (i.e., sphincter relaxation)
Controls neighborhood gastrointestinal secretion and nutrient absorb

The left vagus nerve is anterior come the stomach, and also the ideal vagus is posterior to it. This can be remembered with the mnemonic LARP: Left Anterior, ideal Posterior.


Microscopic anatomy

The mucosa that the stomach is specialized in the adhering to ways: It includes millions that gastric pits that are lined through mucus-secreting cell (foveolar cells) and also open right into one or an ext gastric glands.
dedicated cells the the gastric glands Region Cell type Secretory product or function Fundus and also body Pylorus and antrum
Chief cell commonly located at the bases the the gastric glands Pepsinogen
Parietal cell generally located in the center of the gastric glands
Enterochromaffin-like cabinet (ECL cell)
P/D1 cabinet