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As the hockey player pushes off through his behind leg, a perpendicular pressure F is exerted ~ above the ice scating by the ice. The ingredient of the pressure F that points front (in the direction of motion) is what pushes the player forward. In ~ the exact same time, his other skate is either elevated or gliding top top the ice. As he moves forward he climate switches come the various other leg and pushes off the ice v that one, and the process is mirrored. To push off the ice with higher forward pressure (and advice faster), the skater boosts the edge α, which rises the ingredient of pressure in the direction that motion.To avoid transforming their backs top top the the opposite team, hockey players periodically skate backwards making use of a gliding pattern in the shape of a lazy "S" (as displayed below). In this skating pattern, the player's blades never leave the ice. However, the player cannot press off against the ice as tough as the does once skating forward, which means he can not go together fast.

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In this technique, the player pushes versus the ice v his push-skate dealing with inward, when his various other skate glides. As he move backwards he climate switches to the other leg and also pushes off the ice v that one, and also the procedure is mirrored. Thus, the physics of skating backward is similar to the physics that skating forward.A hockey player can at many move his feet at about 7 m/s, and also the best forward push pressure will be once he starts skating native rest. At this suggest the velocity that his foot loved one to the ice cream is 7 m/s. As the player gains rate this loved one velocity changes. For example, if he reaches a speed of 5 m/s, the relative velocity that his foot loved one to the ice cream is 2 m/s (assuming he move his foot backwards, with no sideways component of velocity), and also the push pressure is less as a result. Consequently, over there is a maximum rate a hockey player can reach, which is straight influenced through how quick he can move his feet top top the ice. However, the maximum speed the player can reach is not necessarily 7 m/s. It have the right to be much an ext than this if the player, once pushing turn off the ice, move his leg backward through a sideways component of velocity. To understand this, and also to identify the maximum possible speed which can be reached, we have to look in ~ the biomechanics of the player on the ice. The biomechanics of a player as he moves on the ice cream is an additional useful evaluation in the physics of hockey. To preserve his balance when increasing forward, a hockey player will crouch front in the direction of motion. This avoids him indigenous falling (tipping) backwards due to the torque brought about by the forward component that the force F. By crouching (or bending) forward, the player is moving his center of mass forward which create a counter-torque. This counter-torque balances the torque resulted in by the front component that F, and also this avoids him indigenous falling (tipping) backwards.The style of the hockey ice scating is an additional important element related to the physics of hockey. A hockey player's chisels must be able to support his fast acceleration, turns, and stops. This is accomplished by grind a slight hollow right into the bottom of the blade. This creates two sharp edge which "bite" into the ice, and also prevent slipping. The figure below illustrates this.
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Due to hefty use throughout a common game, a player's knives must be on regular basis kept sharpened in order to keep optimal performance. If the edges come to be dull the an outcome can be a player's foot slipping out from under him as he goes roughly a turn or attempts to stop.The PuckA hockey puck is do of a hard vulcanized rubber material, may be to resist the high level that wear and tear throughout a game. They room colored black color in order come be highly visible against the surface of the ice.Hockey pucks are frozen prior to being provided in a game. This reduces the level that friction the puck has actually with the ice and enables it come travel further on the ice, there is no "sticking". This is convenient from a player's point of view due to the fact that he prefers to keep his inert on the ice without having to stop and also hit the puck again to acquire it moving.Freezing the puck is likewise done to deliberately reduce exactly how much that bounces throughout play. This enables better control the puck movement.The Hockey StickThe hockey stick has several various features. That is designed come enable great puck control, while additionally being lightweight and strong enough to stand up to the stresses placed on it during use.One that the an essential features the a hockey stick that affects puck regulate is the curvature of the blade, i beg your pardon acts together a form of self-centering mechanism. When the puck is to win the curvature of the blade "forces" it towards the bottom of the curve, where it often tends to sit for the quick duration of influence before paris off. This permits a player come make an ext consistent shots because the puck has tendency to fly off the same part of the tongue every time.However, because that the services of fairness and also uniformity the play, regulations frequently limit the amount of curvature a player's blade have the right to have. Because that example, in the NHL the preferably curvature is defined as follows: The perpendicular street from a line drawn from the heel of the tongue to the end of the blade, and to the suggest on the tongue of preferably distance, shall not exceed three-quarters of an inch. A diagram of this is shown below.
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In the above diagram the maximum allowable street denoted by the blue line is three-quarters of an inch.Some football player curve their chisels closer come the finish of the blade, which renders it a bit much easier to scoop the puck far from another player. An individual preference is a main element in just how players curve their sticks.Curvature of the tongue also permits players to much more easily put spin ~ above the puck which gives it gyroscopic stability during flight. This renders it an ext likely that it will land flat on the ice. Applying tape to the blade improves friction between puck and blade. This aids the capacity to put spin on the puck.Another feature of a hockey stick the affects puck manage is the "loft" or "face" the the blade. This is the tilt angle of the blade, visible when looking in ~ the stick from directly above. This is shown in the figure below.
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A better tilt angle renders it easier for a player to lift increase the puck and get that airborne. Again, how much tilt works ideal comes down to the an individual preference the the hockey player.A feature constructed into hockey sticks, tailored come a player's style of play, is the angle of "lie". This is the edge the blade renders with the shaft. This is represented by the angle θ in the number below.
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Players usually seek a lie angle that will put their blade flat on the ice cream while they are in their usual skating stance.As shown in the figure above, the toes is the very end of the blade. The toe come in two an easy shapes: round and square. The difference in between the 2 is the the round toe allows an ext ability to regulate the puck in ~ the tip, when the square toe boosts the blocking area at the tip.A good choice of material for hockey sticks is carbon fiber. It is lightweight and has high strength. This is essential for lull of puck control and also for making shots, such as the slapshot (which will be discussed next). This is a great example of exactly how material scientific research is an important part the the physics of hockey.The Slapshot
In the slapshot, players can clock puck speed of over 100 miles per hour, making it the hardest shooting in hockey.The hockey player begins the slapshot by elevating the stick behind his body, as displayed below.

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Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slapshot. Author: http://www.flickr.com/photos/somegeekintnNext, the player violent strikes the ice slightly behind the puck, and also uses his weight to bending the stick, storing energy in it like a spring. Once the confront of the blade strikes the puck the player rotates his wrists and shifts his weight in order to release this save on computer energy and transfer it come the puck. The result is the puck reaching a speed quicker than it would certainly if the player simply hit the puck directly. The kinetic energy of the puck after influence is same to the stored energy in the hockey stick.The figure listed below shows the suggest of affect between the stick and puck. Girlfriend can clearly see the bending in the stick.
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Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinur/2952972685Thus, the physics occurring here is the move of energy from player come stick, and from stick to puck. The benefit of storing energy in the stick is the (upon release) that strikes the puck quicker than the player can, leading to the puck to reach a better speed.The Goaltender
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Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/howlingmad/465762068The function of the goaltender is come block shots make by the the contrary team. To defend his body from injury he wears protective equipment to absorb the affect of the puck v his body. Because of his high level of exposure to high-speed pucks he wears even much more protective equipment than the various other players. However, the weight and also bulk of the equipment can slow down and also restrict the activity of the goaltender somewhat. Thus, strength and cardiovascular training, as well as the learning of great technique and efficiency that movement, is an essential part of gift a great goaltender.The Lacrosse format Goal
This is a an especially interesting topic in the physics of hockey. In the lacrosse format goal, the hockey player skillful maneuvers the puck right into the net, while maintaining contact in between puck and also blade. The picture below shows Mike Legg who, in 1996 (while playing for the university of Michigan), scores a lacrosse style goal native behind the net. The almost right trajectory the the puck from ice cream to network is stood for by the blue curve.
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To start the move, Mike Legg orients the puck ~ above its sheet so that it touch the tongue of his pole head on. He climate guides the puck follow me (using the tongue of his stick) such that it adheres to a curved trajectory, together shown. This bent trajectory reasons the puck to experience centripetal acceleration. The centripetal acceleration points towards the center of curvature the the curve, in the direction that the red arrows (shown in the picture). This centripetal acceleration in turn causes the puck come "push" versus the tongue hard enough so the it doesn't fall off as result of gravity.There space basically two things that must occur in order because that this trick to work:(1) he must relocate the puck along the trajectory at a high sufficient speed (v) to generate a high enough centripetal acceleration (ac), to create sufficient call force between puck and also blade. (Note the ac = v2/R, wherein R is the radius the curvature follow me the trajectory).(2) in ~ the exact same time, he need to orient the tongue so that the call side encounters the facility of curvature that the trajectory – in other words, that must face in the direction the the red arrows (shown in the picture). This permits the puck come "push" versus the blade with enough call force to prevent falling off due to gravity. This wake up by means of the friction force in between blade and puck. The friction pressure is proportional come the contact force. Therefore a high enough contact force generates enough friction pressure to counteract the force of heaviness pulling down on the puck.The lacrosse format goal must be seen to be fully understood. To see this score made through Mike Legg clock the video clip below.Return come The Physics of Sports
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