The 3rd generation of computers was based upon the combined Circuits which changed the transistors in the second generation. The various advantages in the 3rd Generations of computer due to incorporated circuits were raised processing speed, much less power consumption, less heat generation, decreased size that the system, better storage capacity, portability, etc. As result of all these reasons the 3rd generations of computer systems were an instant commercial success. Let’s discuss the features, advantages, and also disadvantages of the third generation of computer systems in an ext detail. 
Advantages of third Generation Computer Disadvantages of 3rd Generation ComputerThird Generation that Computer background <1964 come 1975>Features & characteristics of 3rd Generation of computerThird generation of computer system used integrated Circuits (ICs)Types that Operating device in third Generation ComputerThird Generation of computer Programming LanguagesThird Generation of computer input and output devicesHardware qualities of third Generations the ComputerThird Generation of computer system Storage Devices3rd Generation of computer systems ExamplesMainframe computer systems in 3rd Generation ComputersMinicomputer in third Generation ComputersPersonal computer systems in third Generation ComputersFrequently Asked concern (FAQ)Who produced the 3rd generation of computer system ?What are the benefits of 3rd generation computers ?What space disadvantages of 3rd generation computers?What are the qualities of third generation computer systems ?what space the instances of third generation computers?Third generation of computer system was based on which technology ?

Advantages of third Generation Computer 

Integrated Circuits (IC) were usedComputers were an ext reliable than previous generationsThe dimension of computers reducedFaster processing and less computational timeLess power ConsumptionComputers have the right to support High-level LanguagesIncreased Storage volume of ComputerIncreased AccuracyLess Failure price of HardwareLess at risk to Programming ErrorMore Versatile Less maintain required because of IC

Disadvantages of third Generation Computer

Air Conditioning forced in the Mainframes however not in MinicomputersThe Price the Computers very costlyIntegrated Circuits can not it is in repaired easilyIntegrated Circuits were very complicated and required dedicated workersSophisticated an innovation required come manufacture combined Circuits

Each benefits & Disadvantage space justified and explained in detail under the features of third Generation the Computer. 

Third Generation that Computer background <1964 come 1975>

During 1966, the mass rise of computers sped up with the ‘Third Generation’. The computer systems did not continue to be a ‘High tech Thing’ afforded by only big business, but rather it adjusted to ‘Personal Computers’ affordable because that masses. The technology relied ~ above the transistor combined circuits which finished with a microprocessor-based 4th generation.

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Third Generation the Computer history Events in chronological orderIn 1958, Jack Kilby at Texas tools invented hybrid combined circuits (hybrid IC). These hybrid ICs were not an ideal for fixed production.In 1959, Robert Noyce in ~ Fairchild Semiconductors developed monolithic combined circuits (IC) chips. These IC chips required a planar process, enabling integrated circuits to be printed on silicon plates.In 1961, Semiconductor network computer systems created the first general-purpose computer based upon Rober Noyce’s monolithic combined circuits. Later, NASA used this modern technology in their Apollo accuse Computer.In 1965, SDS 92 was among the beforehand commercial offers of third-generation computers.In 1966, Hewlett Packard (HP) introduced their 2116A minicomputer. It has actually HP’s very first commercial computer system of 16-bits which provided monolithic ICs.In 1969, IBM ready their first commercial IC-based third-generation computer system named System/360 version 85.In 1971, IBM all set its System/370 successor of the System/360 family. System/370 affiliated extensive usage of ICs. IBM started its fixed production and also shipment to other places.In 1971, the ILLIAC IV to be the fastest supercomputer in the world based on the third generation IC designed to process 1 billion operations every second.The 3rd generation computer systems underwent far-reaching innovation in the 1960s and 1970s. The physical dimension of computers and the widening of computer vendors lugged the power of computer to the hand of people. Through smaller and affordable hardware brought about the breakthrough of the operating device Unix.

Features & qualities of third Generation that computer

Third generation of computer used combined Circuits (ICs)

The time duration of Second-generation computer systems is marked between 1955 to 1964, whereas the time duration of the third generation of computer systems is between 1964 to 1975. The transistors from the second generation to be miniaturized and printed on combined circuits in the 3rd generation that computers. The transistor room electronic maker that can act as a current amplifier and also as one ON/OFF switch. The transistors to be a landmark of technology and they replaced the vacuum pipe in the first generation that computers.Transistors to be miniaturized and also placed top top silicon chips, dubbed semiconductors, which dramatically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Millions the Transistors in a single ICThe Integrated Circuits (IC) replaced the transistor technology in the 3rd generation, as the IC provided lithography which can pattern the whole circuit onto the result chips, containing up to countless individual transistors. The integrated Circuits can also pattern other components such as a resistor, capacitors, inductors, and so on apart indigenous transistors. So, the combined Circuits removed the require for physics electronic materials as they were indistinguishable to the lithography fads that were drawn on the silicon boards of IC. If the transistor required the size of a fingernail reminder to sit top top the circuitry in the 2nd generation that the computer, then in the 3rd generation the a computer system the exact same transistor only forced a grain of rice size to it is in imported on the chips.The integrated circuits were invented by Jack Kilby in 1958 in ~ Texas Instrument. The very first commercial computers based on Integrated Circuits were made by IBM, and this marked the start of the third generation that computers. Technologies that marked the Generation that computers Generation the ComputerTechnology First generationVacuum tubesSecond GenerationTransistorsThird GenerationIntegrated Circuits (IC)Fourth GenerationMicroprocessorFifth GenerationArtificial Intelligence 

Types of Operating mechanism in third Generation Computer

In the third generation the computers, the species of operation systems used were remote Processing, Time-Sharing, Real-Time, Multiprogramming operation System. As well as the Multiprogramming operation System, all various other Operating solution were presented in the third generation that computers.The various features that each operation system provided were – Remote handling Operating System – this operating system introduced us to a client-server architecture. The indict to it is in processed can be listed by one computer to another computer that has powerful processing capacity, and the result from handling will climate be returned to the an initial computer.Time-Sharing operating System – In this operating system, the processor’s time is shared amongst multiple users simultaneously. Therefore Time-sharing operating systems enabled many world to use assorted terminals that the very same mainframe computer system at the same time. The objective of the time-sharing operating mechanism was to minimize the solution time. Real-Time operating System – In this operation system, the time interval between the processing inputs and also generating the result is so small that it appears to regulate the environment. All of the above-operating solution were presented in the 3rd generation of computers. Every these operating equipment made computers applicable in various fields of studies, industries, etc. 

Third Generation of computer system Programming Languages

The programming languages the were available in the third generation that the computer were FORTRAN – II to IV, COBOL, PASCAL, BASIC, ALGOL – 68, etc. FORTRAN (Formula Translator)One of the more quickly High Level Programming LanguagesDeveloped by john Bsckus in ~ IBMCommonly provided version – FORTRAN IV and also FORTRAN 77
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language)Developed through Alan J. PerlisIntroduced BLOCK STRUCTURE, programs created of independent blocks to save on computer both data and also instruction.
COBOL (Common organization Oriented Language)Language designed come run organization applicationOne of the oldest high level languageCOBOL to be a widely offered language in the world.
In the an initial generation that computers, machine language was just used and also they were in the form of binary codes. In the second Generation that Computer, the assembly language replaced the high-level language, and likewise high-level languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL came.In the third Generation of computer system actual development in the high-level programming language was seen. The High-Level Programming Language make programming to be a lot simpler than before and also therefore many independent programmers began writing their software and application, thus the third generation of computers has a good number that application software program for your computers. The third generation of computer systems is therefore also significant for their support of high-level language. 

Third Generation of computer input and output devices

In the 2nd generation the computers, the computer system system was dependent on the beat cards for input. If any kind of programmer has to provide instructions come the computer then they would have to code them right into punch cards and then insert them right into computers.For this reason, the 2nd generation of computers did not get much popularity due to the fact that of the tedious method of human-computer interaction. In the third generation that computers, keyboards and monitors changed the punch map mechanism. So, if the programmer has actually to give instructions to the computer system then he will certainly simply type them from the keyboard and also it will appear on the monitor. This motivated many people to learn computer programming and develop your software. 

Hardware qualities of third Generations that Computer

The third generation the computers generated really less heat as contrasted to the 2nd generation the computers. This is due to the fact that of silicon, silicon is a semiconductor, and therefore v the aid of the ideal impurities, the resistance the this material have the right to be decreased. Therefore because of much less resistance, the heat production greatly reduced and also so walk the power consumption and this to be not possible in the 2nd generation of computers which provided metallic wires to connect electronic components.The Size of the third generation computer system was reduced because the electronic components were lithography fads that were drawn on the silicon chips, and because of power reduction the power unit size likewise decreased. The third generation of computer systems had quicker processing since the chips deserve to contain approximately billions of transistors ~ above the chips and also this variety of transistors contributed to the handling speed that the computers. Therefore the processing power lessened the computational speed from microseconds come nanoseconds.  

Third Generation of computer system Storage Devices

The mainframe computer in the 3rd generation used combined Circuits however the other peripherals such as storage technique were the same as that of the second generation the the computer, castle used reel come reel tapes drives for long term data storage. The minicomputer supplied smaller size reels than full-sized magnetic ice cream drives, the DECtape were renowned in PDP-8 and PDP-11 computers. 

3rd Generation of computers Examples

The various example and types of 3rd generation of computer systems are

Mainframe computer systems in third Generation Computers

The Mainframe computer systems were offered by huge organizations for miscellaneous applications such as consumer statics, enterprise resource planning, the transaction on big scale, and also many much more bulk data handling tasks. A mainframe has much much more processing power than a minicomputer, an individual computer, or servers. The usual Mainframe computer systems in third Computers wereIBM System/360 Developed through IBM in 1964Designed to cover tiny to huge scale commercial or clinical applicationCould do 34,500 instruction every secondLarge system Supported 8 MB of main memory.
 UNIVAC 1108Introduced in 1964Replaced thin film resistors with combined Control RegisterSupported up to 16 input/output channelsMemory volume was 64k 38-bit words
Honeywell 6180Rebadged version of basic Electric’s 600 seriesManufactured from 1970 to 1989Maximum Memory support was 256K (1MB of 9-bit bytes)CPU operated on 36-bit words and addresses to be 18 bits.

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Minicomputer in third Generation Computers

Minicomputers are smaller and also less an effective than mainframes or supercomputers, but more powerful than an individual computers.The various areas of application room transaction handling, clinical computation, database management, and also many more.The common Minicomputer in the 3rd Generation was PDP-8/I 12 bit Minicomputer the was developed by Digital devices Corporation (DEC)An combined version the the well-known PDP-8 which was the second generation.The Price of this third Generation mini-computer to be $18,500 in 1965.The key memory volume was 4,096 (2^12) twelve-bit words.
PDP-11/20Most famous Minicomputer in PDP series.The very first Version the Unix ran ~ above PDP-11/20.The PDP-11 replaced the PDP-8 in plenty of real-time applicationsPDP-11 increased from 16 to 32-bit addressing 

Personal computer systems in 3rd Generation Computers

Xerox Alto and also StarXerox Alto developed at Xerox PARC in 1973First personal Computer come implement Graphical User InterfaceIncorporated assorted Technologies such as icon folder, mouse, Ethernet Networking, E-mail, and many more.Later Xerox Alto motivated Apple Lisa and also Apple Macintosh also learning to home windows PC. 

Frequently Asked inquiry (FAQ)